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CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (1973); as amended 1979, and provisionally at Gaborone 30 Apr 1983 With Appendices (I and II, 16 Apr 93; III, 11 Jun 92) ENTRY INTO FORCE: 1 July 1975 The Contracting States, RECOGNIZING that wild fauna and flora in their many beautiful and varied forms are an irreplaceable part of the natural systems of the earth which must be protected for this and the generations to come; CONSCIOUS of the ever-growing value of wild fauna and flora from aesthetic, scientific, cultural, recreational and economic points of view; RECOGNIZING that peoples and States are and should be the best protectors of their own wild fauna and flora; RECOGNIZING, in addition, that international cooperation is essential for the protection of certain species of wild fauna and flora against overexploitation through international trade; CONVINCED of the urgency of taking appropriate measures to this end; HAVE AGREED as follows: Article I DEFINITIONS For the purpose of the present Convention, unless the context otherwise requires: a) "Species" means any species, sub-species, or geographically separate population thereof; b) "Specimen" means: (i) an animal or plant, whether alive or dead; (ii) in the case of an animal: for species included in Appendices I and II, any readily recognizable part or derivative thereof; and for species included in Appendix III, any readily recognizable part or derivative thereof specified in Appendix III in relation to the species; and (iii) in the case of a plant: for species included in Appendix I, any readily recognizable part or derivative thereof; and for species included in Appendices II and III, any readily recognizable part or derivative thereof specified in Appendices II and III in relation to the species; c) "Trade" means export, re-export, import and introduction from the sea; d) "Re-export" means export of any specimen that has previously been imported; e) "Introduction from the sea" means transportation into a State of specimens of any species which were taken in the marine environment not under the jurisdiction of any State; f) "Scientific Authority" means a national scientific authority designated in accordance with Article IX; g) "Management Authority" means a national management authority designated in accordance with Article IX; h) "Party" means a State for which the present Convention has entered into force. Article II FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 1. Appendix I shall include all species threatened with extinction which are or may be affected by trade. Trade in specimens of these species must be subject to particularly strict regulation in order not to endanger further their survival and must only be authorized in exceptional circumstances. 2. Appendix II shall include: a) all species which although not necessarily now threatened with extinction may become so unless trade in specimens of such species is subject to strict regulation in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival; and b) other species which must be subject to regulation in order that trade in specimens of certain species referred to in subparagraph (a) of this paragraph may be brought under effective control. 3. Appendix III shall include all species which any Party identifies as being subject to regulation within its jurisdiction for the purposes of preventing or restricting exploitation, and as needing the cooperation of other parties in the control of trade. 4. The Parties shall not allow trade in specimens of species included in Appendices I, II and III except in accordance with the provisions of the present Convention. Article III REGULATION OF TRADE IN SPECIMENS OF SPECIES INCLUDED IN APPENDIX I 1. All trade in specimens of species included in Appendix I shall be in accordance with the provisions of this Article. 2. The export of any specimen of a species included in Appendix I shall require the prior grant and presentation of an export permit. An export permit shall only be granted when the following conditions have been met: a) a Scientific Authority of the State of export has advised that such export will not be detrimental to the survival of that species; b) a Management Authority of the State of export is satisfied that the specimen was not obtained in contravention of the laws of that State for the protection of fauna and flora; c) a Management Authority of the State of export is satisfied that any living specimen will be so prepared and shipped as to minimize the risk of injury, damage to health or cruel treatment; and d) a Management Authority of the State of export is satisfied that an import permit has been granted for the specimen. 3. The import of any specimen of a species included in Appendix I shall require the prior grant and presentation of an import permit and either an export permit or a re-export certificate. An import permit shall only be granted when the following conditions have been met: a) a Scientific Authority of the State of import has advised that the import will be for purposes which are not detrimental to the survival of the species involved; b) a Scientific Authority of the State of import is satisfied that the proposed recipient of a living specimen is suitably equipped to house and care for it; and c) a Management Authority of the State of import is satisfied that the specimen is not to be used for primarily commercial purposes. 4. The re-export of any specimen of a species included in Appendix I shall require the prior grant and presentation of a reexport certificate. A re-export certificate shall only be granted when the following conditions have been met: a) a Management Authority of the State of re-export is satisfied that the specimen was imported into that State in accordance with the provisions of the present Convention; b) a Management Authority of the State of re-export is satisfied that any living specimen will be so prepared and shipped as to minimize the risk of injury, damage to health or cruel treatment; and c) a Management Authority of the State of re-export is satisfied that an import permit has been granted for any living specimen. 5. The introduction from the sea of any specimen of a species included in Appendix I shall require the prior grant of a certificate from a Management Authority of the State of introduction. A certificate shall only be granted when the following conditions have been met: a) a Scientific Authority of the State of introduction advises that the introduction will not be detrimental to the survival of the species involved; b) a Management Authority of the State of introduction is satisfied that the proposed recipient of a living specimen is suitably equipped to house and care for it; and c) a Management Authority of the State of introduction is satisfied that the specimen is not to be used for primarily commercial purposes. Article IV REGULATION OF TRADE IN SPECIMENS OF SPECIES INCLUDED IN APPENDIX II 1. All trade in specimens of species included in Appendix II shall be in accordance with the provisions of this Article. 2. The export of any specimen of a species included in Appendix II shall require the prior grant and presentation of an export permit. An export permit shall only be granted when the following conditions have been met: a) a Scientific Authority of the State of export has advised that such export will not be detrimental to the survival of that species; b) a Management Authority of the State of export is satisfied that the specimen was not obtained in contravention of the laws of that State for the protection of fauna and flora; and c) a Management Authority of the State of export is satisfied that any living specimen will be so prepared and shipped as to minimize the risk of injury, damage to health or cruel treatment. 3. A Scientific Authority in each Party shall monitor both the export permits granted by that State for specimens of species included in Appendix II and the actual exports of such specimens. Whenever a Scientific Authority determines that the export of specimens of any such species should be limited in order to maintain that species throughout its range at a level consistent with its role in the ecosystems in which it occurs and well above the level at which that species might become eligible for inclusion in Appendix I, the Scientific Authority shall advise the appropriate Management Authority of suitable measures to be taken to limit the grant of export permits for specimens of that species. 4. The import of any specimen of a species included in Appendix II shall require the prior presentation of either an export permit or a re-export certificate. 5. The re-export of any specimen of a species included in Appendix II shall require the prior grant and presentation of a reexport certificate. A re-export certificate shall only be granted when the following conditions have been met: a) a Management Authority of the State of re-export is satisfied that the specimen was imported into that State in accordance with the provisions of the present Convention; and b) a Management Authority of the State of re-export is satisfied that any living specimen will be so prepared and shipped as to minimize the risk of injury, damage to health or cruel treatment. 6. The introduction from the sea of any specimen of a species included in Appendix II shall require the prior grant of a certificate from a Management Authority of the State of introduction. A certificate shall only be granted when the following conditions have been met: a) a Scientific Authority of the State of introduction advises that the introduction will not be detrimental to the survival of the species involved; and b) a Management Authority of the State of introduction is satisfied that any living specimen will be so handled as to minimize the risk of injury, damage to health or cruel treatment. 7. Certificates referred to in paragraph 6 of this Article may be granted on the advice of a Scientific Authority, in consultation with other national scientific authorities or, when appropriate, international scientific authorities, in respect of periods not exceeding one year for total numbers of specimens to be introduced in such periods. Article V REGULATION OF TRADE IN SPECIMENS OF SPECIES INCLUDED IN APPENDIX III 1. All trade in specimens of species included in Appendix III shall be in accordance with the provisions of this Article. 2. The export of any specimen of a species included in Appendix III from any State which has included that species in Appendix III shall require the prior grant and presentation of an export permit. An export permit shall only be granted when the following conditions have been met: a) a Management Authority of the State of export is satisfied that the specimen was not obtained in contravention of the laws of that State for the protection of fauna and flora; and b) a Management Authority of the State of export is satisfied that any living specimen will be so prepared and shipped as to minimize the risk of injury, damage to health or cruel treatment. 3. The import of any specimen of a species included in Appendix III shall require, except in circumstances to which paragraph 4 of this Article applies, the prior presentation of a certificate of origin and, where the import is from a State which has included that species in Appendix III, an export permit. 4. In the case of re-export, a certificate granted by the Management Authority of the State of re-export that the specimen was processed in that State or is being re-exported shall be accepted by the State of import as evidence that the provisions of the present Convention have been complied with in respect of the specimen concerned. Article VI PERMITS AND CERTIFICATES 1. Permits and certificates granted under the provisions of Articles III, IV and V shall be in accordance with the provisions of this Article. 2. An export permit shall contain the information specified in the model set forth in Appendix IV, and may only be used for export within a period of six months from the date on which it was granted. 3. Each permit or certificate shall contain the title of the present Convention, the name and any identifying stamp of the Management Authority granting it and a control number assigned by the Management Authority. 4. Any copies of a permit or certificates issued by a Management Authority shall be clearly marked as copies only and no such copy may be used in place of the original, except to the extent endorsed thereon. 5. A separate permit or certificate shall be required for each consignment of specimens. 6. A Management Authority of the State of import of any specimen shall cancel and retain the export permit or re-export certificate and any corresponding import permit presented in respect of the import of that specimen. 7. Where appropriate and feasible a Management Authority may affix a mark upon any specimen to assist in identifying the specimen. For these purposes "mark" means any indelible imprint, lead seal or other suitable means of identifying a specimen, designed in such a way as to render its imitation by unauthorized persons as difficult as possible. Article VII EXEMPTIONS AND OTHER SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO TRADE 1. The provisions of Articles III, IV and V shall not apply to the transit or trans-shipment of specimens through or in the territory of a Party while the specimens remain in Customs control. 2. Where a Management Authority of the State of export or reexport is satisfied that a specimen was acquired before the provisions of the present Convention applied to that specimen, the provisions of Articles III, IV and V shall not apply to that specimen where the Management Authority issues a certificate to that effect. 3. The provisions of Articles III, IV and V shall not apply to specimens that are personal or household effects. This exemption shall not apply where: a) in the case of specimens of a species included in Appendix I, they were acquired by the owner outside his State of usual residence, and are being imported into that State; or b) in the case of specimens of species included in Appendix II: (i) they were acquired by the owner outside his State of usual residence and in a State where removal from the wild occurred; (ii) they are being imported into the owner's State of usual residence; and (iii) the State where removal from the wild occurred requires the prior grant of export permits before any export of such specimens; unless a Management Authority is satisfied that the specimens were acquired before the provisions of the present Convention applied to such specimens. 4. Specimens of an animal species included in Appendix I bred in captivity for commercial purposes, or of a plant species included in Appendix I artificially propagated for commercial purposes, shall be deemed to be specimens of species included in Appendix II. 5. Where a Management Authority of the State of export is satisfied that any specimen of an animal species was bred in captivity or any specimen of a plant species was artificially propagated, or is a part of such an animal or plant or was derived therefrom, a certificate by that Management Authority to that effect shall be accepted in lieu of any of the permits or certificates required under the provisions of Articles III, IV or V. 6. The provisions of Articles III, IV and V shall not apply to the non-commercial loan, donation or exchange between scientists or scientific institutions registered by a Management Authority of their State, of herbarium specimens, other preserved, dried or embedded museum specimens, and live plant material which carry a label Issued or approved by a Management Authority. 7. A Management Authority of any State may waive the requirements of Articles III, IV and V and allow the movement without permits or certificates of specimens which form part of a travelling zoo, circus, menagerie, plant exhibition or other travelling exhibition provided that: a) the exporter or importer registers full details of such specimens with that Management Authority; b) the specimens are in either of the categories specified in paragraphs 2 and 5 of this Article; and c) the Management Authority is satisfied that any living specimen will be so transported and cared for as to minimize the risk of injury, damage to health or cruel treatment. Article VIII MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE PARTIES 1. The Parties shall take appropriate measures to enforce the provisions of the present Convention and to prohibit trade in specimens in violation thereof. These shall include measures: a) to penalize trade in, or possession of, such specimens, or both; and b) to provide for the confiscation or return to the State of export of such specimens. 2. In addition to the measures taken under paragraph 1 of this Article a Party may, when it deems it necessary, provide for any method of internal reimbursement for expenses incurred as a result of the confiscation of a specimen traded in violation of the measures taken in the application of the provisions of the present Convention. 3. As far as possible, the Parties shall ensure that specimens shall pass through any formalities required for trade with a minimum of delay. To facilitate such passage, a Party may designate ports of exit and ports of entry at which specimens must be presented for clearance. The Parties shall ensure further that all living specimens, during any period of transit, holding or shipment, are properly cared for so as to minimize the risk of injury, damage to health or cruel treatment. 4. Where a living specimen is confiscated as a result of measures referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article: a) the specimen shall be entrusted to a Management Authority of the State of confiscation; b) the Management Authority shall, after consultation with the State of export, return the specimen to that State at the expense of that State, or to a rescue centre or such other place as the Management Authority deems appropriate and consistent with the purposes of the present Convention; and c) the Management Authority may obtain the advice of a Scientific Authority, or may, wherever it considers it desirable, consult the Secretariat in order to facilitate the decision under sub-paragraph (b) of this paragraph, including the choice of a rescue centre or other place. 5. A rescue centre as referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article means an institution designated by a Management Authority to look after the welfare of living specimens, particularly those that have been confiscated. 6. Each Party shall maintain records of trade in specimens of species included in Appendices I, II and III which shall cover: a) the names and addresses of exporters and importers; and b) the number and type of permits and certificates granted; the States with which such trade occurred; the numbers or quantities and types of specimens, names of species as included in Appendices I, II and III and, where applicable, the size and sex of the specimens in question. 7. Each Party shall prepare periodic reports on its implementation of the present Convention and shall transmit to the Secretariat: a) an annual report containing a summary of the information specified in sub-paragraph (b) of paragraph 6 of this Article; and b) a biennial report on legislative, regulatory and administrative measures taken to enforce the provisions of the present Convention. 8. The information referred to in paragraph 7 of this Article shall be available to the public where this is not inconsistent with the law of the Party concerned. Article IX MANAGEMENT AND SCIENTIFIC AUTHORITIES 1. Each Party shall designate for the purposes of the present Convention: a) one or more Management Authorities competent to grant permits or certificates on behalf of that Party; and b) one or more Scientific Authorities. 2. A State depositing an instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall at that time inform the Depositary Government of the name and address of the Management Authority authorized to communicate with other Parties and with the Secretariat. 3. Any changes in the designations or authorizations under the provisions of this Article shall be communicated by the Party concerned to the Secretariat for transmission to all other Parties. 4. Any Management Authority referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article shall if so requested by the Secretariat or the Management Authority of another Party, communicate to it impression of stamps, seals or other devices used to authenticate permits or certificates. Article X TRADE WITH STATES NOT PARTY TO THE CONVENTION Where export or re-export is to, or import is from, a State not a Party to the present Convention, comparable documentation issued by the competent authorities in that State which substantially conforms with the requirements of the present Convention for permits and certificates may be accepted in lieu thereof by any Party. Article XI CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES 1. The Secretariat shall call a meeting of the Conference of the Parties not later than two years after the entry into force of the present Convention. 2. Thereafter the Secretariat shall convene regular meetings at least once every two years, unless the Conference decides otherwise, and extraordinary meetings at any time on the written request of a least one-third of the Parties. 3. At meetings, whether regular or extraordinary, the Parties shall review the implementation of the present Convention and may: a) make such provision as may be necessary to enable the Secretariat to carry out its duties, and adopt financial provisions; b) consider and adopt amendments to Appendices I and II in accordance with Article XV; c) review the progress made towards the restoration and conservation of the species included in Appendices I, II and III; d) receive and consider any reports presented by the Secretariat or by any Party; and e) where appropriate, make recommendations for improving the effectiveness of the present Convention. 4. At each regular meeting, the Parties may determine the time and venue of the next regular meeting to be held in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 2 of this Article. 5. At any meeting, the Parties may determine and adopt rules of procedure for the meeting. 6. The United Nations, its Specialized Agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as any State not a Party to the present Convention, may be represented at meetings of the Conference by observers, who shall have the right to participate but not to vote. 7. Any body or agency technically qualified in protection, conservation or management of wild fauna and flora, in the following categories, which has informed the Secretariat of its desire to be represented at meetings of the Conference by observers, shall be admitted unless at least one-third of the Parties present object: a) international agencies or bodies, either governmental or non-governmental, and national governmental agencies and bodies; and b) national non-governmental agencies or bodies which have been approved for this purpose by the State in which they are located. Once admitted, these observers shall have the right to participate but not to vote. Article XII THE SECRETARIAT 1. Upon entry into force of the present Convention, a Secretariat shall be provided by the Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme. To the extent and in the manner he considers appropriate, he may be assisted by suitable intergovernmental or non-governmental international or national agencies and bodies technically qualified in protection, conservation and management of wild fauna and flora. 2. The functions of the Secretariat shall be: a) to arrange for and service meetings of the Parties; b) to perform the functions entrusted to it under the provisions of Articles XV and XVI of the present Convention; c) to undertake scientific and technical studies in accordance with programmes authorized by the Conference of the Parties as will contribute to the implementation of the present Convention, including studies concerning standards for appropriate preparation and shipment of living specimens and the means of identifying specimens; d) to study the reports of Parties and to request from Parties such further information with respect thereto as it deems necessary to ensure implementation of the present Convention; e) to invite the attention of the Parties to any matter pertaining to the aims of the present Convention; f) to publish periodically and distribute to the Parties current editions of Appendices I, II and III together with any information which will facilitate identification of specimens of species included in those Appendices. g) to prepare annual reports to the Parties on its work and on the implementation of the present Convention and such other reports as meetings of the Parties may request; h) to make recommendations for the implementation of the aims and provisions of the present Convention, including the exchange of information of a scientific or technical nature; i) to perform any other function as may be entrusted to it by the Parties. Article XIII INTERNATIONAL MEASURES 1. When the Secretariat in the light of information received is satisfied that any species included in Appendices I or II is being affected adversely by trade in specimens of that species or that the provisions of the present Convention are not being effectively implemented, it shall communicate such information to the authorized Management Authority of the Party or Parties concerned. 2. When any Party receives a communication as indicated in paragraph 1 of this Article, it shall, as soon as possible, inform the Secretariat of any relevant facts insofar as its laws permit and, where appropriate, propose remedial action. Where the Party considers that an inquiry is desirable, such inquiry may be carried out by one or more persons expressly authorized by the Party. 3. The information provided by the Party or resulting from any inquiry as specified in paragraph 2 of this Article shall be reviewed by the next Conference of the Parties which may make whatever recommendations it deems appropriate. Article XIV EFFECT ON DOMESTIC LEGISLATION AND INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS 1. The provisions of the present Convention shall in no way affect the right of Parties to adopt: a) stricter domestic measures regarding the conditions for trade, taking, possession or transport of specimens of species included in Appendices I, II and III, or the complete prohibition thereof; or b) domestic measures restricting or prohibiting trade, taking possession, or transport of species not included in Appendices I, II or III. 2. The provisions of the present Convention shall in no way affect the provisions of any domestic measures or the obligations of Parties deriving from any treaty, convention, or international agreement relating to other aspects of trade, taking, possession, or transport of specimens which is in force or subsequently may enter into force for any Party including any measure pertaining to the Customs, public health, veterinary or plant quarantine fields. 3. The provisions of the present Convention shall in no way affect the provisions of, or the obligations deriving from, any treaty, convention or international agreement concluded or which may be concluded between States creating a union or regional trade agreement establishing or maintaining a common external customs control and removing customs controls between the parties thereto insofar as they relate to trade among the States members of that union or agreement. 4. A State Party to the present Convention, which is also a Party to any other treaty, convention or international agreement which is in force at the time of the coming into force of the present Convention and under the provisions of which protection is afforded to marine species included in Appendix II, shall be relieved of the obligations imposed on it under the provisions of the present Convention with respect to trade in specimens of species included in Appendix II that are taken by ships registered in that State and in accordance with the provisions of such other treaty, convention or international agreement. 5. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles III, IV and V, any export of a specimen taken in accordance with paragraph 4 of this Article shall only require a certificate from a Management Authority of the State of introduction to the effect that the specimen was taken in accordance with the provisions of the other treaty, convention or international agreement in question. 6. Nothing in the present Convention shall prejudice the codification and development of the law of the sea by the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea convened pursuant to Resolution 2750 C (XXV) of the General Assembly of the United Nations nor the present or future claims and legal views of any State concerning the law of the sea and the nature and extent of coastal and flag State jurisdiction. Article XV AMENDMENTS TO APPENDICES I AND II 1. The following provisions shall apply in relation to amendments to Appendices I and II at meetings of the Conference of the Parties: a) Any Party may propose an amendment to Appendix I or II for consideration at the next meeting. The text of the proposed amendment shall be communicated to the Secretariat at least 150 days before the meeting. The Secretariat shall consult the other Parties and interested bodies on the amendment in accordance with the provisions of sub-paragraphs (b) and (c) of paragraph 2 of this Article and shall communicate the response to all Parties not later than 30 days before the meeting. b) Amendments shall be adopted by a two-thirds majority of Parties present and voting. For these purposes "Parties present and voting" means Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative vote. Parties abstaining from voting shall not be counted among the two-thirds required for adopting an amendment. c) Amendments adopted at a meeting shall enter into force 90 days after that meeting for all Parties except those which make a reservation in accordance with paragraph 3 of this Article. 2. The following provisions shall apply in relation to amendments to Appendices I and II between meetings of the Conference of the Parties: a) Any Party may propose an amendment to Appendix I and II for consideration between meetings by the postal procedures set forth in this paragraph. b) For marine species, the Secretariat shall, upon receiving the text of the proposed amendment, immediately communicate it to the Parties. It shall also consult intergovernmental bodies having a function in relation to those species especially with a view to obtaining scientific data these bodies may be able to provide and to ensuring co-ordination with any conservation measures enforced by such bodies. The Secretariat shall communicate the views expressed and data provided by these bodies and its own findings and recommendations to the Parties as soon as possible. c) For species other than marine species, the Secretariat shall, upon receiving the text of the proposed amendments, immediately communicate it to the Parties, and, as soon as possible thereafter, its own recommendations. d) Any Party may, within 60 days of the date on which the Secretariat communicated its recommendations to the Parties under sub-paragraphs (b) or (c) of this paragraph, transmit to the Secretariat any comments on the proposed amendment together with any relevant scientific data and information. e) The Secretariat shall communicate the replies received together with its own recommendations to the Parties as soon as possible. f) If no objection to the proposed amendment is received by the Secretariat within 30 days of the date the replies and recommendations were communicated under the provisions of sub-paragraph (e) of this paragraph, the amendment shall enter into force 90 days later for all Parties except those which make a reservation in accordance with paragraph 3 of this Article. g) If an objection by any Party is received by the Secretariat the proposed amendment shall be submitted to a postal vote in accordance with the provisions of sub-paragraphs (h), (i) and (j) of this paragraph. h) The Secretariat shall notify the Parties that notification of objection has been received. i) Unless the Secretariat receives the votes for, against or in abstention from at least one-half of the Parties within 60 days of the date of notification under sub-paragraph (h) of this paragraph, the proposed amendment shall be referred to the next meeting of the Conference for further consideration. j) Provided that votes are received from one-half of the Parties, the amendment shall be adopted by a two-thirds majority of Parties casting an affirmative or negative vote. k) The Secretariat shall notify all Parties of the result of the vote. l) If the proposed amendment is adopted it shall enter into force 90 days after the date of the notification by the Secretariat of its acceptance for all Parties except those which make a reservation in accordance with paragraph 3 of this Article. 3. During the period of 90 days provided for by sub-paragraph (c) of paragraph 1 or sub-paragraph (l) of paragraph 2 of this Article any Party may by notification in writing to the Depositary Government make a reservation with respect to the amendment. Until such reservation is withdrawn the Party shall be treated as a State not a Party to the present Convention with respect to trade in the species concerned. Article XVI APPENDIX III AND AMENDMENTS THERETO 1. Any Party may at any time submit to the Secretariat a list of species which it identifies as being subject to regulation within its Jurisdiction for the purpose mentioned in paragraph 3 of Article II. Appendix III shall include the names of the Parties submitting the species for inclusion therein, the scientific names of the species so submitted, and any parts or derivatives of the animals or plants concerned that are specified in relation to the species for the purposes of sub-paragraph (b) of Article I. 2. Each list submitted under the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article shall be communicated to the Parties by the Secretariat as soon as possible after receiving it. The list shall take effect as part of Appendix III 90 days after the date of such communication. At any time after the communication of such list, any Party may by notification in writing to the Depositary Government enter a reservation with respect to any species or any parts or derivatives, and until such reservation is withdrawn, the State shall be treated as a State not a Party to the present Convention with respect to trade in the species or part or derivative concerned. 3. A Party which has submitted a species for inclusion in Appendix III may withdraw it at any time by notification to the Secretariat which shall communicate the withdrawal to all Parties. The withdrawal shall take effect 30 days after the date of such communication. 4. Any Party submitting a list under the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article shall submit to the Secretariat a copy of all domestic laws and regulations applicable to the protection of such species, together with any interpretations which the Party may deem appropriate or the Secretariat may request. The Party shall, for as long as the species in question is included in Appendix III, submit any amendments of such laws and regulations or any new interpretations as they are adopted. Article XVII AMENDMENT OF THE CONVENTION 1. An extraordinary meeting of the Conference of the Parties shall be convened by the Secretariat on the written request of at least one-third of the Parties to consider and adopt amendments to the present Convention. Such amendments shall be adopted by a two-thirds majority of Parties present and voting. For these purposes "Parties present and voting" means Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative vote. Parties abstaining from voting shall not be counted among the two-thirds required for adopting an amendment. 2. The text of any proposed amendment shall be communicated by the Secretariat to all Parties at least 90 days before the meeting. 3. An amendment shall enter into force for the Parties which have accepted it 60 days after two-thirds of the Parties have deposited an instrument of acceptance of the amendment with the Depositary Government. Thereafter, the amendment shall enter into force for any other Party 60 days after that Party deposits its instrument of acceptance of the amendment. Article XVIII RESOLUTION OF DISPUTES 1. Any dispute which may arise between two or more Parties with respect to the interpretation or application of the provisions of the present Convention shall be subject to negotiation between the Parties involved in the dispute. 2. If the dispute cannot be resolved in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article, the Parties may, by mutual consent, submit the dispute to arbitration, in particular that of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague, and the Parties submitting the dispute shall be bound by the arbitral decision. Article XIX SIGNATURE The present Convention shall be open for signature at Washington until 30 April 1973 and thereafter at Berne until 31 December 1974. Article XX RATIFICATION, ACCEPTANCE, APPROVAL The present Convention shall be subject to ratification, acceptance or approval. Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the Government of the Swiss Confederation which shall be the Depositary Government. Article XXI ACCESSION The present Convention shall be open indefinitely for accession. Instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Depositary Government. [1. This Convention shall be open for accession by regional economic integration organizations constituted by sovereign States which have competence in respect of the negotiation, conclusion and implementation of international agreements in matters transferred to them by their Member States and covered by this Convention. 2. In their instruments of accession, such organizations shall declare the extent of their competence with respect to the matters governed by the Convention. These organizations shall also inform the Depositary Government of any substantial modification in the extent of their competence. Notifications by regional economic integration organizations concerning their competence with respect to matters governed by this Convention and modifications thereto shall be distributed to the Parties by the Depositary Government. 3. In matters within their competence, such regional integration organizations shall exercise the rights and fulfill the obligations which this Convention attributes to their Member States, which are Parties to the Convention. In such cases the Member States of the organizations shall not be entitled to exercise such rights individually. 4. In the fields of their competence, regional economic integration organizations shall exercise their right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of their Member States which are Parties to the Convention. Such organizations shall not exercise their right to vote if their Member States exercise theirs, and vice versa. 5. Any reference to "Party" in the sense used in Article 1(h) of this Convention to "State"/"States" or to "State Party"/"States Parties" to the Convention shall be construed as including a reference to any regional economic integration organization having competence in respect of the negotiation, conclusion and application of international agreements in matters covered by this Convention.]** ** The paragraphs in square brackets are an amendment to the Convention which was adopted at an extraordinary meeting of the Conference of the Parties in Gaborone (Botswana) on 30 April 1983. The amendment is not yet in force. It will enter into force when it has been formally accepted by 54 of the 80 States which were Parties to the Convention on that date. By August 1993 it had been accepted by 31 of those States. Article XXII ENTRY INTO FORCE 1. The present Convention shall enter into force 90 days after the date of deposit of the tenth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, with the Depositary Government. 2. For each State which ratifies, accepts or approves the present Convention or accedes thereto after the deposit of the tenth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, the present Convention shall enter into force 90 days after the deposit by such State of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession. Article XXIII RESERVATIONS 1. The provisions of the present Convention shall not be subject to general reservations. Specific reservations may be entered in accordance with the provisions of this Article and Articles XV and XVI. 2. Any State may, on depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, enter a specific reservation with regard to: a) any species included in Appendix I, II, III; or b) any parts or derivatives specified in relation to a species included in Appendix III. 3. Until a Party withdraws its reservation entered under the provisions of this Article, it shall be treated as a State not a Party to the present Convention with respect to trade in the particular species or parts or derivatives specified in such reservation. Article XXIV DENUNCIATION Any Party may denounce the present Convention by written notification to the Depositary Government at any time. The denunciation shall take effect twelve months after the Depositary Government has received the notification. Article XXV DEPOSITARY 1. The original of the present Convention, in the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, each version being equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Depositary Government, which shall transmit certified copies thereof to all States that have signed it or deposited instruments of accession to it. 2. The Depositary Government shall inform all signatory and acceding States and the Secretariat of signatures, deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, entry into force of the present Convention, amendments thereto, entry and withdrawal of reservations and notifications of denunciation. 3. As soon as the present Convention enters into force, a certified copy thereof shall be transmitted by the Depositary Government to the Secretariat of the United Nations for registration and publication in accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations. IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized to that effect, have signed the present Convention. DONE at Washington this third day of March, One Thousand Nine Hundred and Seventy-three. **************************** CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA APPENDICES I AND II as adopted by the Conference of the Parties, valid as of 16 April 1993 INTERPRETATION 1. Species included in these appendices are referred to: a) by the name of the species; or b) as being all of the species included in a higher taxon or designated part thereof. 2. The abbreviation "spp." is used to denote all species of a higher taxon. 3. Other references to taxa higher than species are for the purposes of information or classification only. 4. The abbreviation "p.e." is used to denote species that are possibly extinct. 5. An asterisk (*) placed against the name of a species or higher taxon indicates that one or more geographically separate populations, subspecies or species of that species or taxon are included in Appendix I and are excluded from Appendix II. 6. Two asterisks (**) placed against the name of a species or higher taxon indicate that one or more geographically separate populations, subspecies or species of that species or taxon are included in Appendix II and are excluded from Appendix I. 7. The symbol (-) followed by a number placed against the name of a species or higher taxon denotes that designated geographically separate populations, species, groups of species or families of that species or taxon are excluded from the appendix concerned, as follows: -101 Population of West Greenland -102 Populations of Bhutan, India, Nepal and Pakistan -103 Population of China -104 Population of Australia -105 Population of the United States of America -106 - Chile: part of the population of Parinacota Province, Ia. Region of Tarapac╩ - Peru: populations of Pampa Galeras National Reserve and Nuclear Zone, Pedregal, Oscconta and Sawacocha (Province of Lucanas), Sais Picotani (Province of Azangaro), Sais Tupac Amaru (Province of Jun┴n), and of Salinas Aguada Blanca National Reserve (Provinces of Arequipa and Cailloma) -107 Populations of Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan -108 Cathartidae -109 Melopsittacus undulatus, Nymphicus hollandicus and Psittacula krameri -110 Populations of Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe, and populations of the following countries subject to the specified annual export quotas: 1992 1993 1994 Madagascar 3,100 4,100 4,400 (ranched specimens: 3,000 4,000 4,300 wild nuisance specimens: 100 100 100) Somalia 500 0 0 South Africa 1,000 1,000 1,000 Uganda 2,500 2,500 2,500 Apart from ranched specimens, the United Republic of Tanzania will authorize the export of no more than 100 hunting trophies each year, 400 nuisance animals in 1992, 200 a year in 1993 and 1994 and 100 in 1995 and each following year. -111 Populations of Australia and Papua New Guinea, and population of Indonesia subject to specified annual export quotas as follows: 1992 1993 1994 Total 9,700 8,500 8,500 Ranched/captive-bred specimens 7,000 7,000 7,000 Wild specimens 1,500 1,500 1,500 Skins in stock 1,200 0 0 -112 Population of Indonesia -113 Population of Chile -114 All species that are not succulent 8. The symbol (+) followed by a number placed against the name of a species or higher taxon denotes that only designated geographically separate populations, subspecies or species of that species or taxon are included in the appendix concerned, as follows: +201 Population of South America (populations outside South America are not included in the appendices) +202 Populations of Bhutan, India, Nepal and Pakistan +203 Populations of Bhutan, China, Mexico and Mongolia +204 Populations of Cameroon and Nigeria +205 Population of Asia +206 Population of India +207 Populations of Central and North America +208 Population of Australia +209 - Chile: part of the population of Parinacota Province, Ia. Region of Tarapac╩ - Peru: populations of Pampa Galeras National Reserve and Nuclear Zone, Pedregal, Oscconta and Sawacocha (Province of Lucanas), Sais Picotani (Province of Azangaro), Sais Tupac Amaru (Province of Jun┴n), and of Salinas Aguada Blanca National Reserve (Provinces of Arequipa and Cailloma) +210 Populations of Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan +211 Population of Mexico +212 Populations of Algeria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, the Niger, Nigeria, Senegal and the Sudan +213 Population of the Sudan. This listing will enter into force on 11 July 1992 only, to allow the export of an existing stock of 8,000 skins between 11 June and 11 July 1992, under specific conditions (skins to be tagged, documented and exported under the supervision of an independent observer) +214 Population of Europe, except the area which formerly constituted the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics +215 Population of Indonesia with a zero export quota. Export of captive-bred specimens of a maximum length of 15 cm will be limited to 3,000 in 1993 and 4,000 in 1994 from the operation of P.D. Bintang Kalbar, Pontianak, West Kalimantan +216 All species of New Zealand +217 Population of Chile 9. The symbol (=) followed by a number placed against the name of a species or higher taxon denotes that the name of that species or taxon shall be interpreted as follows: =301 Includes family Tupaiidae =302 Includes generic synonym Leontideus =303 Includes synonym Saguinus geoffroyi =304 Includes synonym Cercopithecus roloway =305 Includes synonym Colobus badius kirki =306 Includes synonym Colobus badius rufomitratus =307 Includes generic synonym Simias =308 Includes generic synonym Mandrillus =309 Includes generic synonym Rhinopithecus =310 Includes synonyms Bradypus boliviensis and Bradypus griseus =311 Includes synonym Priodontes giganteus =312 Includes synonym Physeter catodon =313 Includes synonym Eschrichtius glaucus =314 Includes generic synonym Eubalaena =315 Includes synonym Dusicyon fulvipes =316 Also referenced as Cerdocyon thous =317 Includes generic synonym Fennecus =318 Also referenced as Ursus thibetanus =319 Also referenced as Aonyx microdon or as Paraonyx microdon =320 Includes synonyms Lutra annectens, Lutra enudris, Lutra incarum and Lutra platensis =321 Includes synonym Eupleres major =322 Also referenced as Lynx caracal; includes generic synonym Caracal =323 Also referenced as Lynx pardinus or Felis lynx pardina =324 Includes synonyms Equus kiang and Equus onager =325 Includes generic synonym Dama =326 Includes generic synonyms Axis and Hyelaphus =327 Includes synonym Bos frontalis =328 Includes synonym Bos grunniens =329 Includes generic synonym Novibos =330 Includes generic synonym Anoa =331 Includes synonym Oryx tao =332 Includes synonym Ovis aries ophion =333 Also referenced as Sula abbotti =334 Also referenced as Ciconia ciconia boyciana =335 Also referenced as Anas platyrhynchos laysanensis =336 Also referenced as Aquila heliaca adalberti =337 Also referenced as Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides =338 Includes synonym Falco babylonicus =339 Also referenced as Crax mitu mitu =340 Includes generic synonym Aburria =341 Formerly included in species Crossoptilon crossoptilon =342 Formerly included in species Polyplectron malacense =343 Includes synonym Rheinardia nigrescens =344 Also referenced as Tricholimnas sylvestris =345 Also referenced as Choriotis nigriceps =346 Also referenced as Houbaropsis bengalensis =347 Also referenced as Amazona dufresniana rhodocorytha =348 Often traded under the incorrect designation Ara caninde =348a Also referenced as Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii =349 Also referenced as Opopsitta diophthalma coxeni =350 Also referenced as Geopsittacus occidentalis =351 Formerly included in species Psephotus chrysopterygius =352 Formerly included in genus Gallirex; also referenced as Tauraco porphyreolophus =353 Formerly included in species Tauraco corythaix =354 Also referenced as Otus gurneyi =355 Also referenced as Ninox novaeseelandiae royana =356 Formerly included in genus Ramphodon =357 Formerly included in genus Rhinoplax =357a Also referenced as Pitta brachyura nympha =358 Also referenced as Muscicapa ruecki or as Niltava ruecki =359 Also referenced as Meliphaga cassidix =360 Formerly included in genus Spinus =361 Includes generic synonyms Nicoria and Geoemyda (part) =362 Also referenced in genus Testudo =363 Formerly included in Podocnemis spp. =364 Includes Alligatoridae, Crocodylidae and Gavialidae =365 Formerly included in Chamaeleo spp. =366 Also referenced as Constrictor constrictor occidentalis =367 Includes synonym Pseudoboa cloelia =368 Also referenced as Hydrodynastes gigas =369 Includes generic synonym Megalobatrachus =370 Sensu D'Abrera =371 Also referenced in genus Dysnomia =372 Includes generic synonym Proptera =373 Also referenced in genus Carunculina =374 Includes generic synonym Micromya =375 Includes generic synonym Papuina =376 Also referenced as Podophyllum emodi =377 Also referenced in genus Echinocactus =378 Also referenced in genus Escobaria =379 Also referenced as Lobeira macdougallii or as Nopalxochia macdougallii =380 Also referenced as Echinocereus lindsayi =381 Also referenced as Wilcoxia schmollii =382 Also referenced as Solisia pectinata =383 Also referenced as Backebergia militaris =384 Also referenced in genus Toumeya =385 Also referenced in genus Toumeya or in genus Sclerocactus =386 Also referenced as Ancistrocactus tobuschii =387 Also referenced in genus Neolloydia or in genus Echinomastus =388 Also referenced in genus Neolloydia =389 Also referenced as Saussurea lappa =390 Also referenced as Engelhardia pterocarpa =391 Includes families Apostasiaceae and Cypripediaceae as subfamilies Apostasioideae and Cypripedioideae =392 Also referenced as Lycaste virginalis var. alba =393 Also referenced as Sarracenia rubra alabamensis =394 Also referenced as Sarracenia rubra jonesii =395 Includes synonym Stangeria paradoxa =396 Includes synonym Welwitschia bainesii 10. The symbol (┐) followed by a number placed against the name of a species or higher taxon shall be interpreted as follows: ┐501 Annual exports quotas for live specimens and hunting trophies are granted as follows: Botswana: 5 Namibia: 150 Zimbabwe: 50 The trade in such specimens is subject to the provisions of Article III of the Convention ┐502 For the exclusive purpose of allowing international trade in cloth made from wool sheared from live vicu█as of the populations included in Appendix II (see +209), and of items made thereof. The reverse side of the cloth must bear the logotype adopted by the range states of the species, which are signatories to the Convenio para la Conservación y Manejo de la Vicu█a, and the selvages either the words VICU┤ANDES-CHILE or the words VICU┤ANDES-PERU, depending on the country of origin ┐503 Fossils are not subject to CITES provisions ┐504 Tissue cultures and flasked seedling cultures are not subject to the provisions of the Convention 11. In accordance with Article I, paragraph b, sub-paragraph (iii), of the Convention, the symbol (#) followed by a number placed against the name of a species or higher taxon included in Appendix II designates parts or derivatives which are specified in relation thereto for the purposes of the Convention as follows: #1 Designates all parts and derivatives, except: a) seeds, spores and pollen (including pollinia); and b) tissue cultures and flasked seedling cultures #2 Designates all parts and derivatives, except: a) seeds and pollen; b) tissue cultures and flasked seedling cultures; and c) chemical derivatives #3 Designates roots and readily recognizable parts thereof #4 Designates all parts and derivatives, except: a) seeds and pollen; b) tissue cultures and flasked seedling cultures; c) fruits and parts and derivatives thereof of naturalized or artificially propagated plants; and d) separate stem joints (pads) and parts and derivatives thereof of naturalized or artificially propagated plants of the genus Opuntia subgenus Opuntia #5 Designates saw-logs, sawn wood and veneers #6 Designates all parts and derivatives, except: a) seeds and pollen; b) tissue cultures and flasked seedling cultures; and c) separate leaves and parts and derivatives thereof of naturalized or artificially propagated plants of the species Aloe vera #7 Designates all parts and derivatives, except: a) seeds and pollen (including pollinia); b) tissue cultures and flasked seedling cultures; c) cut flowers of artificially propagated plants; and d) fruits and parts and derivatives thereof of artificially propagated plants of the genus Vanilla 12. As none of the species or higher taxa of FLORA included in Appendix I is annotated to the effect that their hybrids shall be treated in accordance with the provisions of Article III of the Convention, this means that artificially propagated hybrids produced from one or more of these species or taxa may be traded with a certificate of artificial propagation, and that seeds and pollen (including pollinia), cut flowers, tissue cultures and flasked seedling cultures of these hybrids are not subject to the provisions of the Convention. APPENDIX I APPENDIX II F A U N A MAMMALIA MONOTREMATA Tachyglossidae Zaglossus spp. MARSUPIALIA Dasyuridae Sminthopsis longicaudata Sminthopsis psammophila Thylacinidae Thylacinus cynocephalus p.e. Peramelidae Chaeropus ecaudatus p.e. Perameles bougainville Thylacomyidae Macrotis lagotis Macrotis leucura Phalangeridae Phalanger maculatus Phalanger orientalis Burramyidae Burramys parvus Vombatidae Lasiorhinus krefftii Macropodidae Bettongia spp. Caloprymnus campestris p.e. Dendrolagus bennettianus Dendrolagus inustus Dendrolagus lumholtzi Dendrolagus ursinus Lagorchestes hirsutus Lagostrophus fasciatus Onychogalea fraenata Onychogalea lunata CHIROPTERA Pteropodidae Acerodon spp. Pteropus spp. * Pteropus insularis Pteropus mariannus Pteropus molossinus Pteropus phaeocephalus Pteropus pilosus Pteropodidae (cont.) Pteropus samoensis Pteropus tonganus PRIMATES PRIMATES spp. * =301 Lemuridae Lemuridae spp. Cheirogaleidae Cheirogaleidae spp. Indriidae Indriidae spp. Daubentoniidae Daubentonia madagascariensis Callithricidae Callithrix jacchus aurita Callithrix jacchus flaviceps Leontopithecus spp. =302 Saguinus bicolor Saguinus leucopus Saguinus oedipus =303 Callimiconidae Callimico goeldii Cebidae Alouatta palliata Ateles geoffroyi frontatus Ateles geoffroyi panamensis Brachyteles arachnoides Cacajao spp. Chiropotes albinasus Lagothrix flavicauda Saimiri oerstedii Cercopithecidae Cercocebus galeritus galeritus Cercopithecus diana =304 Colobus pennantii kirki =305 Colobus rufomitratus =306 Macaca silenus Nasalis spp. =307 Papio leucophaeus =308 Papio sphinx =308 Presbytis entellus Presbytis geei Presbytis pileata Presbytis potenziani Pygathrix spp. =309 Hylobatidae Hylobatidae spp. Pongidae Pongidae spp. EDENTATA Myrmecophagidae Myrmecophaga tridactyla Bradypodidae Bradypus variegatus =310 Dasypodidae Priodontes maximus =311 PHOLIDOTA Manidae Manis crassicaudata Manis javanica Manis pentadactyla Manis temminckii LAGOMORPHA Leporidae Caprolagus hispidus Romerolagus diazi RODENTIA Sciuridae Cynomys mexicanus Ratufa spp. Muridae Leporillus conditor Pseudomys praeconis Xeromys myoides Zyzomys pedunculatus Chinchillidae Chinchilla spp. +201 CETACEA CETACEA spp. * Platanistidae Lipotes vexillifer Platanista spp. Ziphiidae Berardius spp. Hyperoodon spp. Physeteridae Physeter macrocephalus =312 Delphinidae Sotalia spp. Sousa spp. Phocoenidae Neophocaena phocaenoides Phocoena sinus Eschrichtidae Eschrichtius robustus =313 Balaenopteridae Balaenoptera acutorostrata ** -101 Balaenoptera borealis Balaenoptera edeni Balaenoptera musculus Balaenoptera physalus Megaptera novaeangliae Balaenidae Balaena spp. =314 Caperea marginata CARNIVORA Canidae Canis lupus ** +202 Canis lupus * -102 Chrysocyon brachyurus Cuon alpinus Dusicyon culpaeus Dusicyon griseus =315 Dusicyon gymnocercus Dusicyon thous =316 Speothos venaticus Vulpes cana Vulpes zerda =317 Ursidae Ursidae spp. * Ailuropoda melanoleuca Helarctos malayanus Melursus ursinus Selenarctos thibetanus =318 Tremarctos ornatus Ursus arctos ** +203 Ursus arctos isabellinus Procyonidae Ailurus fulgens Mustelidae Aonyx congica ** +204 =319 Conepatus humboldtii Enhydra lutris nereis Lutra felina Lutra longicaudis =320 Lutra lutra Lutra provocax Lutrinae spp. * Mustela nigripes Pteronura brasiliensis Viverridae Cryptoprocta ferox Cynogale bennettii Eupleres goudotii =321 Fossa fossa Hemigalus derbyanus Viverridae (cont.) Prionodon linsang Prionodon pardicolor Hyaenidae Hyaena brunnea Felidae Felidae spp. * Acinonyx jubatus ┐501 Felis bengalensis bengalensis ** -103 Felis caracal ** +205 =322 Felis concolor coryi Felis concolor costaricensis Felis concolor cougar Felis geoffroyi Felis jacobita Felis marmorata Felis nigripes Felis pardalis Felis pardina =323 Felis planiceps Felis rubiginosa ** +206 Felis temmincki Felis tigrina Felis wiedii Felis yagouaroundi ** +207 Neofelis nebulosa Panthera leo persica Panthera onca Panthera pardus Panthera tigris Panthera uncia PINNIPEDIA Otariidae Arctocephalus spp. * Arctocephalus townsendi Phocidae Mirounga leonina Monachus spp. PROBOSCIDEA Elephantidae Elephas maximus Loxodonta africana SIRENIA Dugongidae Dugong dugon ** -104 Dugong dugon * +208 Trichechidae Trichechus inunguis Trichechus manatus Trichechus senegalensis PERISSODACTYLA Equidae Equus africanus Equus grevyi Equus hemionus * =324 Equus hemionus hemionus Equus hemionus khur Equus przewalskii Equus zebra hartmannae Equus zebra zebra Tapiridae Tapiridae spp. ** Tapirus terrestris Rhinocerotidae Rhinocerotidae spp. ARTIODACTYLA Suidae Babyrousa babyrussa Sus salvanius Tayassuidae Tayassuidae spp. * -105 Catagonus wagneri Hippopotamidae Choeropsis liberiensis Camelidae Lama guanicoe Vicugna vicugna ** -106 Vicugna vicugna * +209 ┐502 Cervidae Blastocerus dichotomus Cervus dama mesopotamicus =325 Cervus duvauceli Cervus elaphus bactrianus Cervus elaphus hanglu Cervus eldi Cervus porcinus annamiticus =326 Cervus porcinus calamianensis =326 Cervus porcinus kuhli =326 Hippocamelus spp. Moschus spp. ** +210 Moschus spp. * -107 Muntiacus crinifrons Ozotoceros bezoarticus Pudu mephistophiles Pudu pudu Bovidae Addax nasomaculatus Ammotragus lervia Antilocapra americana +211 Bison bison athabascae Bos gaurus =327 Bos mutus =328 Bos sauveli =329 Bubalus depressicornis =330 Bubalus mindorensis =330 Bubalus quarlesi =330 Budorcas taxicolor Capra falconeri Capricornis sumatraensis Cephalophus dorsalis Cephalophus jentinki Cephalophus monticola Cephalophus ogilbyi Cephalophus sylvicultor Cephalophus zebra Damaliscus dorcas dorcas Gazella dama Hippotragus niger variani Kobus leche Nemorhaedus goral Oryx dammah =331 Oryx leucoryx Ovis ammon * Ovis ammon hodgsoni Ovis canadensis +211 Ovis orientalis ophion =332 Ovis vignei Pantholops hodgsoni Rupicapra rupicapra ornata AVES STRUTHIONIFORMES Struthionidae Struthio camelus +212 RHEIFORMES Rheidae Pterocnemia pennata Rhea americana TINAMIFORMES Tinamidae Rhynchotus rufescens maculicollis Rhynchotus rufescens pallescens Rhynchotus rufescens rufescens Tinamus solitarius SPHENISCIFORMES Spheniscidae Spheniscus demersus Spheniscus humboldti PODICIPEDIFORMES Podicipedidae Podilymbus gigas PROCELLARIIFORMES Diomedeidae Diomedea albatrus PELECANIFORMES Pelecanidae Pelecanus crispus Sulidae Papasula abbotti =333 Fregatidae Fregata andrewsi CICONIIFORMES Balaenicipitidae Balaeniceps rex Ciconiidae Ciconia boyciana =334 Ciconia nigra Jabiru mycteria Mycteria cinerea Threskiornithidae Eudocimus ruber Geronticus calvus Geronticus eremita Nipponia nippon Platalea leucorodia Phoenicopteridae Phoenicopteridae spp. ANSERIFORMES Anatidae Anas aucklandica aucklandica Anas aucklandica chlorotis Anas aucklandica nesiotis Anas bernieri Anas formosa Anas laysanensis =335 Anas oustaleti Branta canadensis leucopareia Branta ruficollis Branta sandvicensis Cairina scutulata Coscoroba coscoroba Cygnus melanocorypha Dendrocygna arborea Oxyura leucocephala Rhodonessa caryophyllacea p.e. Sarkidiornis melanotos FALCONIFORMES FALCONIFORMES spp. * -108 Cathartidae Gymnogyps californianus Vultur gryphus Accipitridae Aquila adalberti =336 Aquila heliaca Chondrohierax uncinatus wilsonii Haliaeetus albicilla Haliaeetus leucocephalus Harpia harpyja Pithecophaga jefferyi Falconidae Falco araea Falco jugger Falco newtoni aldabranus Falco pelegrinoides =337 Falco peregrinus =338 Falco punctatus Falco rusticolus GALLIFORMES Megapodiidae Macrocephalon maleo Cracidae Crax blumenbachii Mitu mitu mitu =339 Oreophasis derbianus Penelope albipennis Pipile jacutinga =340 Pipile pipile pipile =340 Phasianidae Argusianus argus Catreus wallichii Colinus virginianus ridgwayi Crossoptilon crossoptilon Crossoptilon harmani =341 Crossoptilon mantchuricum Gallus sonneratii Ithaginis cruentus Lophophorus spp. Lophura edwardsi Lophura imperialis Lophura swinhoii Pavo muticus Polyplectron bicalcaratum Polyplectron emphanum Polyplectron germaini Polyplectron malacense Polyplectron schleiermacheri =342 Rheinardia ocellata =343 Syrmaticus ellioti Syrmaticus humiae Syrmaticus mikado Tetraogallus caspius Tetraogallus tibetanus Tragopan blythii Tragopan caboti Tragopan melanocephalus Tympanuchus cupido attwateri GRUIFORMES Turnicidae Turnix melanogaster Pedionomidae Pedionomus torquatus Gruidae Gruidae spp. * Grus americana Grus canadensis nesiotes Grus canadensis pulla Grus japonensis Grus leucogeranus Grus monacha Grus nigricollis Grus vipio Rallidae Gallirallus australis hectori Gallirallus sylvestris =344 Rhynochetidae Rhynochetus jubata Otididae Otididae spp. * Ardeotis nigriceps =345 Chlamydotis undulata Eupodotis bengalensis =346 CHARADRIIFORMES Scolopacidae Numenius borealis Numenius tenuirostris Tringa guttifer Laridae Larus relictus COLUMBIFORMES Columbidae Caloenas nicobarica Ducula mindorensis Gallicolumba luzonica Goura spp. PSITTACIFORMES PSITTACIFORMES spp. * -109 Psittacidae Amazona arausiaca Amazona barbadensis Amazona brasiliensis Amazona guildingii Amazona imperialis Psittacidae (cont.) Amazona leucocephala Amazona pretrei Amazona rhodocorytha =347 Amazona tucumana Amazona versicolor Amazona vinacea Amazona vittata Anodorhynchus spp. Ara ambigua Ara glaucogularis =348 Ara macao Ara maracana Ara militaris Ara rubrogenys Aratinga guarouba Cacatua goffini Cacatua haematuropygia Cacatua moluccensis Cyanopsitta spixii Cyanoramphus auriceps forbesi Cyanoramphus cookii =348a Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae Cyclopsitta diophthalma coxeni =349 Neophema chrysogaster Ognorhynchus icterotis Pezoporus occidentalis p.e. =350 Pezoporus wallicus Pionopsitta pileata Probosciger aterrimus Psephotus chrysopterygius Psephotus dissimilis =351 Psephotus pulcherrimus p.e. Psittacula echo Psittacus erithacus princeps Pyrrhura cruentata Rhynchopsitta spp. Strigops habroptilus CUCULIFORMES Musophagidae Musophaga porphyreolophus =352 Tauraco corythaix Tauraco fischeri =353 Tauraco livingstonii =353 Tauraco persa =353 Tauraco schalowi =353 Tauraco schuettii =353 STRIGIFORMES STRIGIFORMES spp. * Tytonidae Tyto soumagnei Strigidae Athene blewitti Mimizuku gurneyi =354 Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata =355 Ninox squamipila natalis APODIFORMES Trochilidae Trochilidae spp. * Glaucis dohrnii =356 TROGONIFORMES Trogonidae Pharomachrus mocinno CORACIIFORMES Bucerotidae Aceros spp. * Aceros nipalensis Aceros subruficollis Anorrhinus spp. Anthracoceros spp. Buceros spp. * Buceros bicornis Buceros vigil =357 Penelopides spp. Ptilolaemus spp. PICIFORMES Ramphastidae Pteroglossus aracari Pteroglossus viridis Ramphastos sulfuratus Ramphastos toco Ramphastos tucanus Ramphastos vitellinus Picidae Campephilus imperialis Dryocopus javensis richardsi PASSERIFORMES Cotingidae Cotinga maculata Rupicola spp. Xipholena atropurpurea Pittidae Pitta nympha =357a Pitta guajana Pitta gurneyi Pitta kochi Atrichornithidae Atrichornis clamosus Hirundinidae Pseudochelidon sirintarae Muscicapidae Cyornis ruckii =358 Dasyornis broadbenti litoralis p.e. Dasyornis longirostris Picathartes spp. Zosteropidae Zosterops albogularis Meliphagidae Lichenostomus melanops cassidix =359 Emberizidae Gubernatrix cristata Paroaria capitata Paroaria coronata Fringillidae Carduelis cucullata =360 Carduelis yarrellii =360 Estrildidae Poephila cincta cincta Sturnidae Leucopsar rothschildi Paradisaeidae Paradisaeidae spp. REPTILIA TESTUDINATA Dermatemydidae Dermatemys mawii Emydidae Batagur baska Clemmys insculpta Clemmys muhlenbergi Geoclemys hamiltonii Kachuga tecta tecta Melanochelys tricarinata =361 Morenia ocellata Terrapene coahuila Testudinidae Testudinidae spp. * Geochelone elephantopus =362 Geochelone radiata =362 Geochelone yniphora =362 Gopherus flavomarginatus Psammobates geometricus =362 Cheloniidae Cheloniidae spp. Dermochelyidae Dermochelys coriacea Trionychidae Lissemys punctata punctata Trionyx ater Trionyx gangeticus Trionyx hurum Trionyx nigricans Pelomedusidae Erymnochelys madagascariensis =363 Peltocephalus dumeriliana =363 Podocnemis spp. Chelidae Pseudemydura umbrina CROCODYLIA CROCODYLIA spp. * =364 Alligatoridae Alligator sinensis Caiman crocodilus apaporiensis Caiman latirostris Melanosuchus niger Crocodylidae Crocodylus acutus Crocodylus cataphractus Crocodylus intermedius Crocodylidae (cont.) Crocodylus moreletii Crocodylus niloticus ** -110 Crocodylus niloticus +213 Crocodylus novaeguineae mindorensis Crocodylus palustris Crocodylus porosus ** -111 Crocodylus rhombifer Crocodylus siamensis Osteolaemus tetraspis Tomistoma schlegelii Gavialidae Gavialis gangeticus RHYNCHOCEPHALIA Sphenodontidae Sphenodon punctatus SAURIA Gekkonidae Cyrtodactylus serpensinsula Phelsuma spp. Agamidae Uromastyx spp. Chamaeleonidae Bradypodion spp. =365 Chamaeleo spp. Iguanidae Amblyrhynchus cristatus Brachylophus spp. Conolophus spp. Cyclura spp. Iguana spp. Phrynosoma coronatum Sauromalus varius Lacertidae Gallotia simonyi Podarcis lilfordi Podarcis pityusensis Cordylidae Cordylus spp. Pseudocordylus spp. Teiidae Cnemidophorus hyperythrus Crocodilurus lacertinus Dracaena spp. Tupinambis spp. Scincidae Corucia zebrata Xenosauridae Shinisaurus crocodilurus Helodermatidae Heloderma spp. Varanidae Varanus spp. * Varanus bengalensis Varanus flavescens Varanus griseus Varanus komodoensis SERPENTES Boidae Boidae spp. * Acrantophis spp. Boa constrictor occidentalis =366 Bolyeria multocarinata Casarea dussumieri Epicrates inornatus Epicrates monensis Epicrates subflavus Python molurus molurus Sanzinia madagascariensis Colubridae Clelia clelia =367 Cyclagras gigas =368 Elachistodon westermanni Ptyas mucosus Elapidae Hoplocephalus bungaroides Naja naja Ophiophagus hannah Viperidae Vipera ursinii +214 Vipera wagneri AMPHIBIA CAUDATA Ambystomidae Ambystoma dumerilii Ambystoma mexicanum Cryptobranchidae Andrias spp. =369 ANURA Bufonidae Atelopus varius zeteki Bufo retiformis Bufo superciliaris Nectophrynoides spp. Myobatrachidae Rheobatrachus spp. Dendrobatidae Dendrobates spp. Phyllobates spp. Ranidae Rana hexadactyla Rana tigerina Microhylidae Dyscophus antongilii PISCES CERATODIFORMES Ceratodidae Neoceratodus forsteri COELACANTHIFORMES Coelacanthidae Latimeria chalumnae ACIPENSERIFORMES Acipenseridae Acipenser brevirostrum Acipenser oxyrhynchus Acipenser sturio Polyodontidae Polyodon spathula OSTEOGLOSSIFORMES Osteoglossidae Arapaima gigas Scleropages formosus ** -112 Scleropages formosus * +215 CYPRINIFORMES Cyprinidae Caecobarbus geertsi Probarbus jullieni Catostomidae Chasmistes cujus SILURIFORMES Schilbeidae Pangasianodon gigas PERCIFORMES Sciaenidae Cynoscion macdonaldi INSECTA LEPIDOPTERA Papilionidae Bhutanitis spp. Ornithoptera spp. * =370 Ornithoptera alexandrae Papilio chikae Papilio homerus Papilio hospiton Parnassius apollo Teinopalpus spp. Trogonoptera spp. =370 Troides spp. =370 ARACHNIDA ARANEAE Theraphosidae Brachypelma smithi ANNELIDA ARHYNCHOBDELLAE Hirudinidae Hirudo medicinalis MOLLUSCA VENEROIDA Tridacnidae Tridacnidae spp. UNIONOIDA Unionidae Conradilla caelata Cyprogenia aberti Dromus dromas Epioblasma curtisi =371 Epioblasma florentina =371 Epioblasma sampsoni =371 Epioblasma sulcata perobliqua =371 Epioblasma torulosa gubernaculum =371 Epioblasma torulosa rangiana =371 Epioblasma torulosa torulosa =371 Epioblasma turgidula =371 Epioblasma walkeri =371 Fusconaia cuneolus Fusconaia edgariana Fusconaia subrotunda Lampsilis brevicula Lampsilis higginsi Lampsilis orbiculata orbiculata Lampsilis satura Lampsilis virescens Lexingtonia dolabelloides Plethobasus cicatricosus Plethobasus cooperianus Pleurobema clava Pleurobema plenum Potamilus capax =372 Quadrula intermedia Quadrula sparsa Toxolasma cylindrella =373 Unio nickliniana Unio tampicoensis tecomatensis Villosa trabalis =374 STYLOMMATOPHORA Achatinellidae Achatinella spp. Camaenidae Papustyla pulcherrima =375 Paryphantidae Paryphanta spp. +216 MESOGASTROPODA Strombidae Strombus gigas ANTHOZOA ANTIPATHARIA ANTIPATHARIA spp. SCLERACTINIA SCLERACTINIA spp. ┐503 HYDROZOA ATHECATA Milleporidae Milleporidae spp. ┐503 Stylasteridae Stylasteridae spp. ┐503 ALCYONARIA COENOTHECALIA COENOTHECALIA spp. ┐503 STOLONIFERA Tubiporidae Tubiporidae spp. ┐503 F L O R A AGAVACEAE Agave arizonica Agave parviflora Agave victoriae-reginae #1 Nolina interrata AMARYLLIDACEAE Galanthus spp. #1 Sternbergia spp. #1 APOCYNACEAE Pachypodium spp. * #1 Pachypodium baronii Pachypodium brevicaule Pachypodium decaryi Pachypodium namaquanum Rauvolfia serpentina #2 ARACEAE Alocasia sanderiana #1 ARALIACEAE Panax quinquefolius #3 ARAUCARIACEAE Araucaria araucana ** +217 Araucaria araucana * -113 #1 ASCLEPIADACEAE Ceropegia spp. #1 Frerea indica #1 BERBERIDACEAE Podophyllum hexandrum =376 #2 BROMELIACEAE Tillandsia harrisii #1 Tillandsia kammii #1 Tillandsia kautskyi #1 Tillandsia mauryana #1 Tillandsia sprengeliana #1 Tillandsia sucrei #1 Tillandsia xerographica #1 BYBLIDACEAE Byblis spp. #1 CACTACEAE CACTACEAE spp. * #4 Ariocarpus spp. Astrophytum asterias =377 Aztekium ritteri Coryphantha minima =378 Coryphantha sneedii =378 Coryphantha werdermannii Discocactus spp. Disocactus macdougallii =379 Echinocereus ferreirianus var. lindsayi =380 Echinocereus schmollii =381 Leuchtenbergia principis Mammillaria pectinifera =382 Mammillaria plumosa Mammillaria solisioides Melocactus conoideus Melocactus deinacanthus Melocactus glaucescens Melocactus paucispinus Obregonia denegrii Pachycereus militaris =383 Pediocactus bradyi =384 Pediocactus despainii Pediocactus knowltonii =384 Pediocactus papyracanthus =385 Pediocactus paradinei Pediocactus peeblesianus =384 Pediocactus sileri Pediocactus winkleri Pelecyphora spp. Sclerocactus brevihamaticus =386 Sclerocactus erectocentrus =387 Sclerocactus glaucus Sclerocactus mariposensis =387 Sclerocactus mesae-verdae Sclerocactus pubispinus Sclerocactus wrightiae Strombocactus disciformis Turbinicarpus spp. =388 Uebelmannia spp. CARYOCARACEAE Caryocar costaricense #1 CEPHALOTACEAE Cephalotus follicularis #1 COMPOSITAE Saussurea costus =389 (ASTERACEAE) CRASSULACEAE Dudleya stolonifera Dudleya traskiae CUPRESSACEAE Fitzroya cupressoides Pilgerodendron uviferum CYATHEACEAE CYATHEACEAE spp. #1 CYCADACEAE CYCADACEAE spp. * #1 Cycas beddomei DIAPENSIACEAE Shortia galacifolia #1 DICKSONIACEAE DICKSONIACEAE spp. #1 DIDIEREACEAE DIDIEREACEAE spp. #1 DIOSCOREACEAE Dioscorea deltoidea #1 DROSERACEAE Dionea muscipula #1 ERICACEAE Kalmia cuneata #1 EUPHORBIACEAE Euphorbia spp. -114 #1 Euphorbia ambovombensis Euphorbia cylindrifolia Euphorbia decaryi Euphorbia francoisii Euphorbia moratii Euphorbia parvicyathophora Euphorbia primulifolia Euphorbia quartziticola Euphorbia tulearensis FOUQUIERIACEAE Fouquieria columnaris #1 Fouquieria fasciculata Fouquieria purpusii JUGLANDACEAE Oreomunnea pterocarpa =390 #1 LEGUMINOSAE (FABACEAE) Dalbergia nigra Pericopsis elata #5 Platymiscium pleiostachyum #1 LILIACEAE Aloe spp. * #6 Aloe albida Aloe pillansii Aloe polyphylla Aloe thorncroftii Aloe vossii MELIACEAE Swietenia humilis #1 Swietenia mahagoni #5 NEPENTHACEAE Nepenthes spp. * #1 Nepenthes khasiana Nepenthes rajah ORCHIDACEAE ORCHIDACEAE spp. * =391 #7 Cattleya skinneri ┐504 Cattleya trianae ┐504 Didiciea cunninghamii ┐504 Laelia jongheana ┐504 Laelia lobata ┐504 Lycaste skinneri var. alba =392 ┐504 Paphiopedilum spp. ┐504 Peristeria elata ┐504 Phragmipedium spp. ┐504 Renanthera imschootiana ┐504 Vanda coerulea ┐504 PALMAE Chrysalidocarpus decipiens (ARECACEAE) #1 Neodypsis decaryi #1 PINACEAE Abies guatemalensis PODOCARPACEAE Podocarpus parlatorei PORTULACACEAE Anacampseros spp. #1 Lewisia cotyledon #1 Lewisia maguirei #1 Lewisia serrata #1 Lewisia tweedyi #1 PRIMULACEAE Cyclamen spp. #1 PROTEACEAE Orothamnus zeyheri Protea odorata RUBIACEAE Balmea stormiae SARRACENIACEAE Darlingtonia californica #1 Sarracenia spp. * #1 Sarracenia alabamensis alabamensis =393 Sarracenia jonesii =394 Sarracenia oreophila STANGERIACEAE Stangeria eriopus =395 THEACEAE Camellia chrysantha #1 WELWITSCHIACEAE Welwitschia mirabilis =396 #1 ZAMIACEAE ZAMIACEAE spp. * #1 Ceratozamia spp. Chigua spp. Encephalartos spp. Microcycas calocoma ZINGIBERACEAE Hedychium philippinense #1 ZYGOPHYLLACEAE Guaiacum officinale #1 Guaiacum sanctum #1 ********************* CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA APPENDIX III as of 11 June 1992 INTERPRETATION 1. References to taxa higher than species are for the purpose of information or classification only. 2. The symbol (=) followed by a number placed against the name of a species denotes that the name of that species shall be interpreted as follows: =397 Includes synonym Tamandua mexicana =398 Includes synonym Cabassous gymnurus =399 Includes synonym Manis longicaudata =400 Includes generic synonym Coendou =401 Includes generic synonym Cuniculus =402 Includes synonym Vulpes vulpes leucopus =403 Includes synonym Nasua narica =404 Includes synonym Galictis allamandi =405 Includes synonym Martes gwatkinsi =406 Includes generic synonym Viverra =407 Also referenced as Tragelaphus eurycerus; includes generic synonym Taurotragus =408 Formerly included as Bubalus bubalis (domesticated form) =409 Also referenced as Ardeola ibis =410 Also referenced as Egretta alba =411 Also referenced as Hagedashia hagedash =412 Also referenced as Lampribis rara =413 Also referenced as Spatula clypeata =414 Also referenced as Nyroca nyroca =415 Includes synonym Dendrocygna fulva =416 Also referenced as Cairina hartlaubii =417 Also referenced as Crax pauxi =418 Also referenced as Arborophila brunneopectus (in part) =419 Also referenced as Turturoena iriditorques or as Columba malherbii (in part) =420 Also referenced as Nesoenas mayeri =421 Also referenced as Treron australis (in part) =422 Also referenced as Calopelia brehmeri; includes synonym Calopelia puella =423 Also referenced as Tympanistria tympanistria =424 Also referenced as Tchitrea bourbonnensis =424a Also referenced as Xanthopsar flavus =424b Also referenced as Serinus gularis (in part) =425 Also referenced as Estrilda subflava or as Sporaeginthus subflavus =426 Also referenced as Lagonosticta larvata (in part) =427 Includes generic synonym Spermestes =428 Also referenced as Euodice cantans; includes synonym Lonchura malabarica =429 Also referenced as Hypargos nitidulus =430 Also referenced as Parmoptila woodhousei (in part) =431 Includes synonyms Pyrenestes frommi and Pyrenestes rothschildi =432 Also referenced as Estrilda bengala =433 Also referenced as Malimbus rubriceps or as Anaplectes melanotis =434 Also referenced as Coliuspasser ardens =435 Also referenced as Euplectes orix (in part) =436 Also referenced as Coliuspasser macrourus =437 Also referenced as Ploceus superciliosus =438 Includes synonym Ploceus nigriceps =439 Also referenced as Sitagra luteola =440 Also referenced as Sitagra melanocephala =441 Also referenced as Hypochera chalybeata; includes synonyms Vidua amauropteryx, Vidua centralis, Vidua neumanni, Vidua okavangoensis and Vidua ultramarina =442 Also referenced as Vidua paradisaea (in part) =443 Also referenced as Pelusios subniger =444 Formerly included in genus Natrix 3. The names of the countries placed against the names of species are those of the Parties submitting these species for inclusion in this appendix. 4. In accordance with Article I, paragraph (b), sub-paragraphs (ii) and (iii), of the Convention, and with Resolutions Conf. 4.24 and Conf. 6.18, the symbol (#) followed by a number placed against the name of a species included in Appendix III designates parts or derivatives which are specified in relation thereto for the purposes of the Convention as follows: #1 Designates all readily recognizable parts and derivatives, except: a) seeds, spores and pollen (including pollinia); and b) tissue cultures and flasked seedling cultures. F A U N A MAMMALIA CHIROPTERA Phyllostomidae Vampyrops lineatus Uruguay EDENTATA Myrmecophagidae Tamandua tetradactyla =397 Guatemala Choloepidae Choloepus hoffmanni Costa Rica Dasypodidae Cabassous centralis Costa Rica Cabassous tatouay =398 Uruguay PHOLIDOTA Manidae Manis gigantea Ghana Manis tetradactyla =399 Ghana Manis tricuspis Ghana RODENTIA Sciuridae Epixerus ebii Ghana Marmota caudata India Marmota himalayana India Sciurus deppei Costa Rica Anomaluridae Anomalurus beecrofti Ghana Anomalurus derbianus Ghana Anomalurus peli Ghana Idiurus macrotis Ghana Hystricidae Hystrix cristata Ghana Erethizontidae Sphiggurus mexicanus =400 Honduras Sphiggurus spinosus =400 Uruguay Agoutidae Agouti paca =401 Honduras Dasyproctidae Dasyprocta punctata Honduras CARNIVORA Canidae Canis aureus India Vulpes bengalensis India Vulpes vulpes griffithi India Vulpes vulpes montana India Vulpes vulpes pusilla =402 India Procyonidae Bassaricyon gabbii Costa Rica Bassariscus sumichrasti Costa Rica Nasua nasua =403 Honduras Nasua nasua solitaria Uruguay Potos flavus Honduras Mustelidae Eira barbara Honduras Galictis vittata =404 Costa Rica Martes flavigula =405 India Martes foina intermedia India Mellivora capensis Botswana, Ghana Mustela altaica India Mustela erminea India Mustela kathiah India Mustela sibirica India Viverridae Arctictis binturong India Civettictis civetta =406 Botswana Paguma larvata India Paradoxurus hermaphroditus India Paradoxurus jerdoni India Viverra megaspila India Viverra zibetha India Viverricula indica India Herpestidae Herpestes auropunctatus India Herpestes edwardsi India Herpestes fuscus India Herpestes smithii India Herpestes urva India Herpestes vitticollis India Protelidae Proteles cristatus Botswana PINNIPEDIA Odobenidae Odobenus rosmarus Canada ARTIODACTYLA Hippopotamidae Hippopotamus amphibius Ghana Tragulidae Hyemoschus aquaticus Ghana Cervidae Cervus elaphus barbarus Tunisia Mazama americana cerasina Guatemala Odocoileus virginianus mayensis Guatemala Bovidae Antilope cervicapra Nepal Boocercus eurycerus =407 Ghana Bubalus arnee =408 Nepal Damaliscus lunatus Ghana Gazella cuvieri Tunisia Gazella dorcas Tunisia Gazella leptoceros Tunisia Bovidae (cont.) Tetracerus quadricornis Nepal Tragelaphus spekei Ghana AVES CICONIIFORMES Ardeidae Ardea goliath Ghana Bubulcus ibis =409 Ghana Casmerodius albus =410 Ghana Egretta garzetta Ghana Ciconiidae Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis Ghana Leptoptilos crumeniferus Ghana Threskiornithidae Bostrychia hagedash =411 Ghana Bostrychia rara =412 Ghana Threskiornis aethiopicus Ghana ANSERIFORMES Anatidae Alopochen aegyptiacus Ghana Anas acuta Ghana Anas capensis Ghana Anas clypeata =413 Ghana Anas crecca Ghana Anas penelope Ghana Anas querquedula Ghana Aythya nyroca =414 Ghana Cairina moschata Honduras Dendrocygna autumnalis Honduras Dendrocygna bicolor =415 Ghana, Honduras Dendrocygna viduata Ghana Nettapus auritus Ghana Plectropterus gambensis Ghana Pteronetta hartlaubii =416 Ghana FALCONIFORMES Cathartidae Sarcoramphus papa Honduras GALLIFORMES Cracidae Crax alberti Colombia Crax daubentoni Colombia Crax globulosa Colombia Crax rubra Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras Ortalis vetula Guatemala, Honduras Pauxi pauxi =417 Colombia Penelope purpurascens Honduras Penelopina nigra Guatemala Phasianidae Agelastes meleagrides Ghana Agriocharis ocellata Guatemala Arborophila charltonii Malaysia Arborophila orientalis =418 Malaysia Caloperdix oculea Malaysia Lophura erythrophthalma Malaysia Lophura ignita Malaysia Melanoperdix nigra Malaysia Polyplectron inopinatum Malaysia Rhizothera longirostris Malaysia Rollulus rouloul Malaysia Tragopan satyra Nepal CHARADRIIFORMES Burhinidae Burhinus bistriatus Guatemala COLUMBIFORMES Columbidae Columba guinea Ghana Columba iriditorques =419 Ghana Columba livia Ghana Columba mayeri =420 Mauritius Columba unicincta Ghana Oena capensis Ghana Streptopelia decipiens Ghana Streptopelia roseogrisea Ghana Streptopelia semitorquata Ghana Streptopelia senegalensis Ghana Streptopelia turtur Ghana Streptopelia vinacea Ghana Treron calva =421 Ghana Treron waalia Ghana Turtur abyssinicus Ghana Turtur afer Ghana Turtur brehmeri =422 Ghana Turtur tympanistria =423 Ghana PSITTACIFORMES Psittacidae Psittacula krameri Ghana CUCULIFORMES Musophagidae Corythaeola cristata Ghana Crinifer piscator Ghana Musophaga violacea Ghana Tauraco macrorhynchus Ghana PICIFORMES Capitonidae Semnornis ramphastinus Colombia Ramphastidae Baillonius bailloni Argentina Pteroglossus castanotis Argentina Ramphastos dicolorus Argentina Selenidera maculirostris Argentina PASSERIFORMES Cotingidae Cephalopterus ornatus Colombia Cephalopterus penduliger Colombia Muscicapidae Bebrornis rodericanus Mauritius Terpsiphone bourbonnensis =424 Mauritius Icteridae Agelaius flavus =424a Uruguay Fringillidae Serinus canicapillus =424b Ghana Serinus leucopygius Ghana Serinus mozambicus Ghana Estrildidae Amadina fasciata Ghana Amandava subflava =425 Ghana Estrilda astrild Ghana Estrilda caerulescens Ghana Estrilda melpoda Ghana Estrilda troglodytes Ghana Lagonosticta rara Ghana Lagonosticta rubricata Ghana Lagonosticta rufopicta Ghana Lagonosticta senegala Ghana Lagonosticta vinacea =426 Ghana Lonchura bicolor =427 Ghana Lonchura cantans =428 Ghana Lonchura cucullata =427 Ghana Lonchura fringilloides =427 Ghana Mandingoa nitidula =429 Ghana Nesocharis capistrata Ghana Nigrita bicolor Ghana Nigrita canicapilla Ghana Nigrita fusconota Ghana Nigrita luteifrons Ghana Ortygospiza atricollis Ghana Parmoptila rubrifrons =430 Ghana Pholidornis rushiae Ghana Pyrenestes ostrinus =431 Ghana Pytilia hypogrammica Ghana Pytilia phoenicoptera Ghana Spermophaga haematina Ghana Uraeginthus bengalus =432 Ghana Ploceidae Amblyospiza albifrons Ghana Anaplectes rubriceps =433 Ghana Anomalospiza imberbis Ghana Bubalornis albirostris Ghana Euplectes afer Ghana Euplectes ardens =434 Ghana Euplectes franciscanus =435 Ghana Ploceidae (cont.) Euplectes hordeaceus Ghana Euplectes macrourus =436 Ghana Malimbus cassini Ghana Malimbus malimbicus Ghana Malimbus nitens Ghana Malimbus rubricollis Ghana Malimbus scutatus Ghana Pachyphantes superciliosus =437 Ghana Passer griseus Ghana Petronia dentata Ghana Plocepasser superciliosus Ghana Ploceus albinucha Ghana Ploceus aurantius Ghana Ploceus cucullatus =438 Ghana Ploceus heuglini Ghana Ploceus luteolus =439 Ghana Ploceus melanocephalus =440 Ghana Ploceus nigerrimus Ghana Ploceus nigricollis Ghana Ploceus pelzelni Ghana Ploceus preussi Ghana Ploceus tricolor Ghana Ploceus vitellinus Ghana Quelea erythrops Ghana Sporopipes frontalis Ghana Vidua chalybeata =441 Ghana Vidua interjecta Ghana Vidua larvaticola Ghana Vidua macroura Ghana Vidua orientalis =442 Ghana Vidua raricola Ghana Vidua togoensis Ghana Vidua wilsoni Ghana Sturnidae Gracula religiosa Thailand REPTILIA TESTUDINATA Trionychidae Trionyx triunguis Ghana Pelomedusidae Pelomedusa subrufa Ghana Pelusios adansonii Ghana Pelusios castaneus Ghana Pelusios gabonensis =443 Ghana Pelusios niger Ghana SERPENTES Colubridae Atretium schistosum India Cerberus rhynchops India Xenochrophis piscator =444 India Elapidae Micrurus diastema Honduras Micrurus nigrocinctus Honduras Viperidae Agkistrodon bilineatus Honduras Bothrops asper Honduras Bothrops nasutus Honduras Bothrops nummifer Honduras Bothrops ophryomegas Honduras Bothrops schlegelii Honduras Crotalus durissus Honduras Vipera russellii India F L O R A GNETACEAE Gnetum montanum #1 Nepal MAGNOLIACEAE Talauma hodgsonii #1 Nepal PAPAVERACEAE Meconopsis regia #1 Nepal PODOCARPACEAE Podocarpus neriifolius #1 Nepal TETRACENTRACEAE Tetracentron sinense #1 Nepal.