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TIAS11097.txt


        VIENNA CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE OZONE LAYER (1985)


ENTRY INTO FORCE: 22 September 1988


                              Preamble

The Parties to this Convention,

Aware of the potentially harmful impact on human health and the environment
through modification of the ozone layer,

Recalling the pertinent provisions of the Declaration of the United Nations
Conference on the Human Environment, and in particular principle 21, which
provides that "States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United
Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to
exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental policies,
and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction
or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of
areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction,"

Taking into account the circumstances and particular requirements of
developing countries,

Mindful of the work and studies proceeding within both international and
national organizations and, in particular, of the World Plan of Action on
the Ozone Layer of the United Nations Environment Programme,

Mindful also of the precautionary measures for the protection of the ozone
layer which have already been taken at the national and international
levels,

Aware that measures to protect the ozone layer from modifications due to
human activities require international co-operation and action and should
be based on relevant scientific and technical considerations,

Aware also of the need for further research and systematic observations to
further develop scientific knowledge of the ozone layer and possible
adverse effects resulting from its modification,

Determined to protect human health and the environment against adverse
effects resulting from modifications of the ozone layer,

HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS:

                              Article 1
                             Definitions

For the purposes of this Convention:

1. "The ozone layer" means the layer of atmospheric ozone above the
planetary boundary layer.

2. "Adverse effects" means changes in the physical environment or biota,
including changes in climate, which have significant deleterious effects on
human health or on the composition, resilience and productivity of natural
and managed ecosystems, or on materials useful to mankind.

3. "Alternative technologies or equipment" means technologies or equipment
the use of which makes it possible to reduce or effectively eliminate
emissions of substances which have or are likely to have adverse effects on
the ozone layer.

4. "Alternative substances" means substances which reduce, eliminate or
avoid adverse effects on the ozone layer.

5. "Parties" means, unless the text otherwise indicates, Parties to this 
Convention.

6. "Regional economic integration organization" means an organization
constituted by sovereign States of a given region which has competence in
respect of matters governed by this Convention or its protocols and has
been duly authorized, in accordance with its internal procedures, to sign,
ratify, accept, approve or accede to the instruments concerned.

7. "Protocols" means protocols to this Convention.

                              Article 2
                         General Obligations

1. The Parties shall take appropriate measures in accordance with the
provisions of this Convention and of those protocols in force to which they
are party to protect human health and the environment against adverse
effects resulting or likely to result from human activities which modify or
are likely to modify the ozone layer.

2. To this end the Parties shall, in accordance with the means at their
disposal and their capabilities:

 (a) Co-operate by means of systematic observations, research and
     information exchange in order to better understand and assess the
     effects of human activities on the ozone layer and the effects on
     human health and the environment from modification of the ozone layer
 (b) Adopt appropriate legislative or administrative measures and
     co-operate in harmonizing appropriate policies to control, limit,
     reduce or prevent human activities under their. jurisdiction or
     control should it be found that these activities have or are likely
     to have adverse effects resulting from modification or likely
     modification of the ozone layer;
 (c) Co-operate in the formulation of agreed measures, procedures and
     standards for the implementation of this Convention, with a view to
     the adoption of protocols and annexes;
 (d) Co-operate with competent international bodies to implement
     effectively this Convention and protocols to which they are party.

3. The provisions of this Convention shall in no way affect the right of
Parties to adopt, in accordance with international law, domestic measures
additional to those referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 above, nor shall they
affect additional domestic measures already taken by a Party, provided that
these measures are not incompatible with their obligations under this
Convention.

4. The application of this article shall be based on relevant scientific
and technical considerations.

                              Article 3
                Research and Systematic Observations

1. The Parties undertake, as appropriate, to initiate and cooperate in,
directly or through competent international bodies, the conduct of research
and scientific assessments on:

 (a) The physical and chemical processes that may affect the ozone layer;
 (b) The human health and other biological effects deriving from any
     modifications of the ozone layer, particularly those resulting from
     changes in ultra-violet solar radiation having biological effects
     (UV-B);
 (c) Climatic effects deriving from any modifications of the ozone layer;
 (d) Effects deriving from any modifications of the ozone layer and any
     consequent change in UV-B radiation on natural and synthetic
     materials useful to mankind;
 (e) Substances, practices, processes and activities that may affect the
     ozone layer, and their cumulative effects;
 (f) Alternative substances and technologies;
 (g) Related socio-economic matters; and as further elaborated in annexes
     I and II.

2. The Parties undertake to promote or establish, as appropriate, directly
or through competent international bodies and taking fully into account
national legislation and relevant ongoing activities at both the national
and international levels, joint or complementary programmes for systematic
observation of the state of the ozone layer and other relevant parameters,
as elaborated in annex I.

3. The Parties undertake to co-operate, directly or through competent
international bodies, in ensuring the collection, validation and
transmission of research and observational data through appropriate world
data centres in a regular and timely fashion.

                              Article 4
    Co-operation in the Legal, Scientific and Technical Fields

1. The Parties shall facilitate and encourage the exchange of scientific,
technical, socio-economic, commercial and legal information relevant to
this Convention as further elaborated in annex II. Such information shall
be supplied to bodies agreed upon by the Parties. Any such body receiving
information regarded as confidential by the supplying Party shall ensure
that such information is not disclosed and shall aggregate it to protect
its confidentiality before it is made available to all Parties.

2. The Parties shall co-operate, consistent with their national laws,
regulations and practices and taking into account in particular the needs
of the developing countries, in promoting, directly or through competent
international bodies, the development and transfer of technology and
knowledge. Such co-operation shall be carried out particularly through:

 (a) Facilitation of the acquisition of alternative technologies by other
     Parties;
 (b) Provision of information on alternative technologies and equipment,
     and supply of special manuals or guides to them;
 (c) The supply of necessary equipment and facilities for research and
     systematic observations;
 (d) Appropriate training of scientific and technical personnel.

                              Article 5
                     Transmission of Information

The Parties shall transmit, through the secretariat, to the Conference of
the Parties established under article 6 information on the measures adopted
by them in implementation of this Convention and of protocols to which they
are party in such form and at such intervals as the meetings of the parties
to the relevant instruments may determine.

                              Article 6
                      Conference of the Parties

1. A Conference of the Parties is hereby established. The first meeting of
the Conference of the Parties shall be convened by the secretariat
designated on an interim basis under article 7 not later than one year
after entry into force of this Convention. Thereafter, ordinary meetings of
the Conference of the Parties shall be held at regular intervals to be
determined by the Conference at its first meeting.

2. Extraordinary meetings of the Conference of the Parties shall be held at
such other times as may be deemed necessary by the Conference, or at the
written request of any party, provided that, within six months of the
request being communicated to them by the secretariat, it is supported by
at least one third of the Parties.

The Conference of the Parties shall by consensus agree upon and adopt rules
of procedure and financial rules for itself and for any subsidiary bodies
it may establish, as well as financial provisions governing the functioning
of the secretariat.

The Conference of the Parties shall keep under continuous review the
implementation of this Convention, and, in addition, shall:

 (a) Establish the form and the intervals for transmitting the information
     to be submitted in accordance with article 5 and consider such
     information as well as reports submitted by any subsidiary body;
 (b) Review the scientific information on the ozone layer, on its possible
     modification and on possible effects of any such modification;
 (c) Promote, in accordance with article 2, the harmonization of
     appropriate policies, strategies and measures for minimizing the
     release of substances causing or likely to cause modification of the
     ozone layer, and make recommendations on any other measures relating
     to this Convention;
 (d) Adopt, in accordance with articles 3 and 4, programmes for research,
     systematic observations, scientific and technological co-operation,
     the exchange of information and the transfer of technology and
     knowledge;
 (e) Consider and adopt, as required, in accordance with articles 9 and
     10, amendments to this Convention and its annexes;
 (f) Consider amendments to any protocol, as well as to any annexes
     thereto, and, if so decided, recommend their adoption to the parties
     to the protocol concerned;
 (g) Consider and adopt, as required, in accordance with article 10,
     additional annexes to this Convention;
 (h) Consider and adopt, as required, protocols in accordance with article
     8;
 (i) Establish such subsidiary bodies as are deemed necessary for the
     implementation of this Convention;
 (j) Seek, where appropriate, the services of competent international
     bodies and scientific committees, in particular the World
     Meteorological Organization and the World Health Organization, as
     well as the Co-ordinating Committee on the Ozone Layer, in scientific
     research, systematic observations and other activities pertinent to
     the objectives of this Convention, and make use as appropriate of
     information from these bodies and committees;
 (k) Consider and undertake any additional action that may be required for
     the achievement of the purposes of this Convention.

5. The United Nations, its specialized agencies and the International
Atomic Energy Agency, as well as any State not party to this Convention,
may be represented at meetings of the Conference of the Parties by
observers. Any body or agency, whether national or international,
governmental or nongovernmental, qualified in fields relating to the
protection of the ozone layer which has informed the secretariat of its
wish to be represented at a meeting of the Conference of the Parties as an
observer may be admitted unless at least one-third of the Parties present
object. The admission and participation of observers shall be subject to
the rules of procedure adopted by the Conference of the Parties.
                              Article 7
                             Secretariat

1. The functions of the secretariat shall be:

 (a) To arrange for and service meetings provided for in articles 6, 8, 9
     and 10;
 (b) To prepare and transmit reports based upon information received in
     accordance with articles 4 and 5, as well as upon information derived
     from meetings of subsidiary bodies  established under article 6;
 (c) To perform the functions assigned to it by any protocols;
 (d) To prepare reports on its activities carried out in implementation of
     its functions under this Convention and present them to the
     Conference of the Parties;
 (e) To ensure the necessary co-ordination with other relevant
     international bodies, and in particular to enter into such
     administrative and contractual arrangements as may be required for
     the effective discharge of its functions;
 (f) To perform such other functions as may be determined by the
     Conference of the Parties.

2. The secretariat functions will be carried out on an interim basis by the
United Nations Environment Programme until the completion of the first
ordinary meeting of the Conference of the Parties held pursuant to article
6. At its first ordinary meeting, the Conference of the Parties shall
designate the secretariat from amongst those existing competent
international organizations which has signified their willingness to carry
out the secretariat functions under this Convention.

                              Article 8
                        Adoption of Protocols

1. The Conference of the Parties may at a meeting adopt protocols pursuant
to article 2.

2. The text of any proposed protocol shall be communicated to the Parties
by the secretariat at least six months before such a meeting.

                              Article 9
              Amendment of the Convention or Protocols

1. Any Party may propose amendments to this Convention or to any protocol.
Such amendments shall take due account, inter alia, of relevant scientific
and technical considerations.

2. Amendments to this Convention shall be adopted at a meeting of the
Conference of the Parties. Amendments to any protocol shall be adopted at a
meeting of the Parties to the protocol in question. The text of any
proposed amendment to this Convention or to any protocol, except as may
otherwise be provided in such protocol, shall be communicated to the
Parties by the secretariat at least six months before the meeting at which
it is proposed for adoption. The secretariat shall also communicate
proposed amendments to the signatories to this Convention for information.

3. The Parties shall make every effort to reach agreement on any proposed
amendment to this Convention by consensus. If all efforts at consensus have
been exhausted, and no agreement reached, the amendment shall as a last
resort be adopted by a three-fourth majority vote of the Parties present
and voting at the meeting, and shall be submitted by the Depositary to all
Parties for ratification, approval or acceptance.

4. The procedure mentioned in paragraph 3 above shall apply to amendments
to any protocol, except that a two-thirds majority of the parties to that
protocol present and voting at the meeting shall suffice for their
adoption.

5. Ratification, approval or acceptance of amendments shall be notified to
the Depositary in writing. Amendments adopted in accordance with paragraphs
3 or 4 above shall enter into force between parties having accepted them on
the ninetieth day after the receipt by the Depositary of notification of
their ratification, approval or acceptance by at least three-fourths of the
Parties to this Convention or by at least two-thirds of the parties to the
protocol concerned, except as may otherwise be provided in such protocol.
Thereafter the amendments shall enter into force for any other Party on the
ninetieth day after that Party deposits its instrument of ratification,
approval or acceptance of the amendments.

6. For the purposes of this article, "Parties present and voting" means
Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative vote.

                              Article 10
                  Adoption and Amendment of Annexes

1. The annexes to this Convention or to any protocol shall form an integral
part of this Convention or of such protocol, as the case may be, and,
unless expressly provided otherwise, a reference to this Convention or its
protocols constitutes at the same time a reference to any annexes thereto.
Such annexes shall be restricted to scientific, technical and
administrative matters.

2. Except as may be otherwise provided in any protocol with respect to its
annexes, the following procedure shall apply to the proposal, adoption and
entry into force of additional annexes to this Convention or of annexes to
a protocol;

 (a) Annexes to this Convention shall be proposed and adopted according to
     the procedure laid down in article 9, paragraphs 2 and 3, while
     annexes to any protocol shall be proposed and adopted according to
     the procedure laid down in article 9, paragraphs 2 and 4;
 (b) Any party that is unable to approve an additional annex to this
     Convention or an annex to any protocol to which it is party shall so
     notify the Depositary, in writing, within six months from the date of
     the communication of the adoption by the Depositary. The Depositary
     shall without delay notify all Parties of any such notification
     received. A Party may at any time substitute an acceptance for a
     previous declaration of objection and the annexes shall thereupon
     enter into force for that Party;
 (c) On the expiry of six months from the date of the circulation of the
     communication by the Depositary, the annex shall become effective for
     all Parties to this Convention or to any protocol concerned which
     have not submitted a notification in accordance with the provision of
     subparagraph (b) above.

3. The proposal, adoption and entry into force of amendments to annexes to
this Convention or to any protocol shall be subject to the same procedure
as for the proposal, adoption and entry into force of annexes to the
Convention or annexes to a protocol. Annexes and amendments thereto shall
take due account, inter alia, of relevant scientific and technical
considerations.

4. If an additional annex or an amendment to an annex involves an amendment
to this Convention or to any protocol, the additional annex or amended
annex shall not enter into force until such time as the amendment to this
Convention or to the protocol concerned enters into force.

                              Article 11
                        Settlement of Disputes

1. In the event of a dispute between Parties concerning the interpretation
or application of this Convention, the parties concerned shall seek
solution by negotiation.

2. If the parties concerned cannot reach agreement by negotiation, they may
jointly seek the good offices of, or request mediation by, a third party.

3. When ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to this Convention, or
at any time thereafter, a State or regional economic integration
organization may declare in writing to the Depositary that for a dispute
not resolved in accordance with paragraph 1 or paragraph 2 above, it
accepts one or both of the following means of dispute settlement as
compulsory:

 (a) Arbitration in accordance with procedures to be adopted by the
     Conference of the Parties at its first ordinary meeting;
 (b) Submission of the dispute to the International Court of Justice.

4. If the parties have not, in accordance with paragraph 3 above, accepted
the same or any procedure, the dispute shall be submitted to conciliation
in accordance with paragraph 5 below unless the parties otherwise agree.

5. A conciliation commission shall be created upon the request of one of
the parties to the dispute. The commission shall be composed of an equal
number of members appointed by each party concerned and a chairman chosen
jointly by the members appointed by each party. The commission shall render
a final and recommendatory award, which the parties shall consider in good
faith.

6. The provisions of this article shall apply with respect to any protocol
except as otherwise provided in the protocol concerned.

                              Article 12
                              Signature

This Convention shall be open for signature at the Federal Ministry for
Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Austria in Vienna from 22 March 1985 to
21 September 1985, and at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 22
September 1985 to 21 March 1986.

                              Article 13
                  Ratification, Acceptance or Approval

1. This Convention and any protocol shalt be subject to ratification,
acceptance or approval by States and by regional economic integration
organizations. Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be
deposited with the Depositary.

2. Any organization referred to in paragraph 1 above which becomes a Party
to this Convention or any protocol without any of its member States being a
Party shall be bound by all the obligations under the Convention or the
protocol as the case may be. In the case of such organizations, one or more
of whose member States is a Party to the Convention or relevant protocol,
the organization and its member Stales shall decide on their respective
responsibilities for the performance of their obligation under the
Convention or protocol, as the case may be. In such cases, the organization
and the member States shall not be entitled to exercise rights under the
Convention or relevant protocol concurrently.

3. In their instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval, the
organizations referred to in paragraph 1 above shall declare the extent of
their competence with respect to the matters governed by the Convention or
the relevant protocol. These organizations shall also inform the Depositary
of any substantial modification in the extent of their competence.

                              Article 14
                              Accession

1. This Convention and any protocol shall be open for accession by States
and by regional economic integration organizations from the date on which
the Convention or the protocol concerned is closed for signature. The
instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.

2. In their instruments of accession, the organizations referred to in
paragraph 1 above shall declare the extent of their competence with respect
to the matters governed by the Convention or the relevant protocol. These
organizations shall also inform the Depositary of any substantial
modification in the extent of their competence.

3. The provisions of article 13, paragraph 2, shall apply to regional
economic integration organizations which accede to this Convention or any
protocol.

                              Article 15
                            Right to Vote

1. Each Party to this Convention or to any protocol shall have one vote.

2. Except as provided for in paragraph 1 above, regional economic
integration organizations, in matters within their competence, shall
exercise their right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of
their member States which are Parties to the Convention or the relevant
protocol. Such organizations shall be exercise their right to vote if their
member States exercise theirs, and vice versa.

                              Article 16
      Relationship Between the Convention and its Protocols

1. A State or a regional economic integration organization may not become a
party to a protocol unless it is, or becomes at the same time, a Party to
the Convention.

2. Decisions concerning any protocol shall be taken only by the parties to
the protocol concerned.

                              Article 17
                           Entry into Force

1. This Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the
date of deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification, acceptance,
approval or accession.

2. Any protocol, except as otherwise provided in such protocol, shall enter
into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit of the eleventh
instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of such protocol or
accession thereto.

3. For each Party which ratifies, accepts or approves this Convention or
accedes thereto after the deposit of the twentieth instrument of
ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, it shall enter into force
on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit by such Party of its
instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.

4. Any protocol, except as otherwise provided in such protocol, shall enter
into force for a party that ratifies, accepts or approves that protocol or
accedes thereto after its entry into force pursuant to paragraph 2 above,
on the ninetieth day after the date on which that party deposits its
instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, or on the
date on which the Convention enters into force for that Party, whichever
shall be the later.

5. For the purposes of paragraphs 1 and 2 above, any instrument deposited
by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as
additional to those deposited by member Sacs of such organization.

                              Article 18
                             Reservations

No reservations may be made to this Convention.

                              Article 19
                              Withdrawal

1. At any time after four years from the date on which this Convention has
entered into force for a Party, that Party may withdraw from the Convention
by giving written notification to the Depositary.

2. Except as may be provided in any protocol, at any time after four years
from the date on which such protocol has entered into force for a party,
that party may withdraw from the protocol by giving written notification to
the Depositary.

3. Any such withdrawal shall take effect upon expiry of one year after the
date of its receipt by the Depositary, or on such later date as may be
specified in the notification of the withdrawal.

4. Any Party which withdraws from this Convention shall be considered as
also having withdrawn from any protocol to which it is party.

                              Article 20
                              Depositary

1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall assume the functions
of depositary of this Convention and any protocols.

2. The Depositary shall inform the Parties, in particular, of:

 (a) The signature of this Convention and of any protocol, and the deposit
     of instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession in
     accordance with articles 13 and 14;
 (b) The date on which the Convention and any protocol will come into
     force in accordance with article 17;
 (c) Notifications of withdrawal made in accordance with article 19;
 (d) Amendments adopted with respect to the Convention and any protocol,
     their acceptance by the parties and their date of entry into force in
     accordance with article 9;
 (e) All communications relating to the adoption and approval of annexes
     and to the amendment of annexes in accordance with article 10;
 (f) Notifications by regional economic integration organizations of the
     extent of their competence with respect to matters governed by this
     Convention and any protocols, and of any modifications thereof.
 (g) Declarations made in accordance with article 11, paragraph 3.

                              Article 21
                           Authentic Texts

The original of this Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English,
French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited
with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect,
have signed this Convention.

Done at Vienna on the 22nd day of March 1985





                              Annex I
              Research and Systematic Observations

1. The Parties to the Convention recognize that the major scientific issues
are:

 (a) Modification of the ozone layer which would result in a change in the
     amount of solar ultra-violet radiation having biological effects
     (UV-B) that reaches the Earth's surface and the potential
     consequences for human health, for organisms, ecosystems and
     materials useful to mankind;
 (b) Modification of the vertical distribution of ozone, which could
     change the temperature structure of the atmosphere and the potential
     consequences for weather and climate.

2. The Parties to the Convention, in accordance with article 3, shall
co-operate in conducting research and systematic observations and in
formulating recommendations for future research and observation in such
areas as:

 (a) Research into the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere
     (i) Comprehensive theoretical models: further development of models
     which consider the interaction between radiative, dynamic and
     chemical processes; studies of the simultaneous effects of various
     man-made and naturally occurring species upon atmospheric ozone;
     interpretation of satellite and non-satellite measurement data sets;
     evaluation of trends in atmospheric and geophysical parameters, and
     the development of methods for attributing changes in these
     parameters to specific causes;
     (ii) Laboratory studies of: rate coefficients, absorption
     cross-sections and mechanisms of tropospheric and stratospheric
     chemical and photochemical processes; spectroscopic data to support
     field measurements in all relevant spectral regions;
     (iii) Field measurements: the concentration and fluxes of key source
     gases of both natural and anthropogenic origin; atmospheric dynamics
     studies; simultaneous measurements of photochemically-related species
     down to the planetary boundary layer, using in situ and remote
     sensing instruments; intercomparison of different sensors, including
     co-ordinated correlative measurements for satellite instrumentation;
     three-dimensional fields of key atmospheric trace constituents, solar
     spectral flux and meteorological parameters;
     (iv) Instrument development, including satellite and non-satellite
     sensors for atmospheric trace constituents, solar flux and
     meteorological parameters
 (b) Research into health, biological and photodegradation effects
     (i) The relationship between human exposure to visible and
     ultra-violet solar radiation and (a) the development of both
     non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer and (b) the effects on the
     immunological system;
     (ii) Effects of UV-B radiation, including the wavelength dependence,
     upon (a) agricultural crops, forests and other terrestrial ecosystems
     and (b) the aquatic food web and fisheries, as well as possible
     inhibition of oxygen production by marine phytoplankton;
     (iii) The mechanisms by which UV-B radiation acts on biological
     materials, species and ecosystems, including: the relationship
     between dose, dose rate, and response; photorepair, adaptation, and
     protection;
     (iv) Studies of biological action spectra and the spectral response
     using polychromatic radiation in order to include possible
     interactions of the various wavelength regions;
     (v) The influence of UV-B radiation on: the sensitivities and
     activities of biological species important to the biospheric balance;
     primary processes such as photosynthesis and biosynthesis;
     (vi) The influence of UV-B radiation on the photodegradation of
     pollutants, agricultural chemicals and other materials;
 (c) Research on effects on climate
     (i) Theoretical and observational studies of the radiative effects of
     ozone and other trace species and the impact on climate parameters,
     such as land and ocean surface temperatures, precipitation patterns,
     the exchange between the troposphere and stratosphere;
     (ii) The investigation of the effects of such climate impacts on
     various aspects of human activity;
 (d) Systematic observations on:
     (i) The status of the ozone layer (i.e. the spatial and temporal
     variability of the total column content and vertical distribution) by
     making the Global Ozone Observing System, based on the integration of
     satellite and ground-based systems, fully operational;
     (ii) The tropospheric and stratospheric concentrations of source
     gases for the HOx, NOx, ClOx and carbon families;
     (iii) The temperature from the ground to the mesosphere, utilizing
     both ground-based and satellite systems;
     (iv) Wavelength-resolved solar flux reaching, and thermal radiation
     leaving, the Earth's atmosphere, utilizing satellite measurements;
     (v) Wavelength-resolved solar flux reaching the Earth's surface in
     the ultra-violet range having biological effects (UV-B);
     (vi) Aerosol properties and distribution from the ground to the
     mesosphere, utilizing ground-based, airborne and satellite systems;
     (vii) Climatically important variables by the maintenance of
     programmes of high-quality meteorological surface measurements;
     (viii) Trace species, temperatures, solar flux and aerosols utilizing
     improved methods for analysing global data.

3. The Parties to the Convention shall co-operate, taking into account the
particular needs of the developing countries, in promoting the appropriate
scientific and technical training required to participate in the research
and systematic observations outlined in this annex. Particular emphasis
should be given to the intercalibration of observational instrumentation
and methods with a view to generating comparable or standardized scientific
data sets.

4. The following chemical substances of natural and anthropogenic origin,
not listed in order of priority, are thought to have the potential to
modify the chemical and physical properties of the ozone layer.

 (a) Carbon substances
     (i) Carbon monoxide (CO)
     Carbon monoxide has significant natural and anthropogenic sources,
     and is thought to play a major direct role in tropospheric
     photochemistry, and an indirect role in stratospheric photochemistry.
     (ii) Carbon dioxide (CO2)
     Carbon dioxide has significant natural and anthropogenic sources, and
     affects stratospheric ozone by influencing the thermal structure of
     the atmosphere.
     (iii) Methane (CH4)
     Methane has both natural and anthropogenic sources, and affects both
     tropospheric and stratospheric ozone.
     (iv) Non-methane hydrocarbon species
     Non-methane hydrocarbon species, which consist of a large number of
     chemical substances, have both natural and anthropogenic sources, and
     play a direct role in tropospheric photochemistry and an indirect
     role in stratospheric photochemistry.
 (b) Nitrogen substances
     (i) Nitrous oxide (N2O)
     The dominant sources of N2O are natural, but anthropogenic
     contributions are becoming increasingly important. Nitrous oxide is
     the primary source of stratospheric NOx, which play a vital role in
     controlling the abundance of stratospheric ozone.
(ii) Nitrogen oxides (NOx)
     Ground-level sources of NOx play a major direct role only in
     tropospheric photochemical processes and an indirect role in
     stratosphere photochemistry, whereas injection of NOx close to the
     tropopause may lead directly to a change in upper tropospheric and
     stratospheric ozone.
 (c) Chlorine substances
     (i) Fully halogenated alkanes, e.g. CCl4, CFCl3 (CFC-11), CF2Cl2
     (CFC-12), C2F3Cl3 (CFC-113), C2F4Cl2 (CFC-114)
     Fully halogenated alkanes are anthropogenic and act as a source of
     ClOx, which plays a vital role in ozone photochemistry, especially in
     the 30-50 km altitude region.
     (ii) Partially halogenated alkanes, e.g. CH3Cl, CHF2Cl (CFC-22),
     CH3CCl3, CHFCl2 (CFC-21)
     The sources of CH3Cl are natural, whereas the other partially
     halogenated alkanes mentioned above are anthropogenic in origin.
     These gases also act as a source of stratospheric ClOx.
 (d) Bromine substances
     Fully halogenated alkanes, e.g. CF3Br
     These gases are anthropogenic and act as a source of BrOx, which
     behaves in a manner similar to ClOx.
 (e) Hydrogen substances
     (i) Hydrogen (H2)
     Hydrogen, the source of which is natural and anthropogenic, plays a
     minor role in stratospheric photochemistry.
     (ii) Water (H2O)
     Water, the source of which is natural, plays a vital role in both
     tropospheric and stratospheric photochemistry. Local sources of water
     vapour in the stratosphere include the oxidation of methane and, to a
     lesser extent, of hydrogen.


                              Annex II
                       Information Exchange

1. The Parties to the Convention recognize that the collection and sharing
of information is an important means of implementing the objectives of this
Convention and of assuring that any actions that may be taken are
appropriate and equitable. Therefore, Parties shall exchange scientific,
technical, socio-economic, business, commercial and legal information.

2. The Parties to the Convention, in deciding what information is to be
collected and exchanged, should take into account the usefulness of the
information and the costs of obtaining it. The Parties further recognize
that co-operation under this annex has to be consistent with national laws,
regulations and practices regarding patents, trade secrets, and protection
of confidential and proprietary information.

3. Scientific information
This includes information on:

 (a) Planned and ongoing research, both governmental and private, to
     facilitate the co-ordination of research programmes so as to make the
     most effective use of available national and international resources;
 (b) The emission data needed for research;
 (c) Scientific results published in peer-reviewed literature on the
     understanding of the physics and chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere
     and of its susceptibility to change, in particular on the state of
     the ozone layer and effects on human health, environment and climate
     which would result from changes on all time-scales in either the
     total column content or the vertical distribution of ozone;
 (d) The assessment of research results and the recommendations for future
     research.

4. Technical information
This includes information on:

 (a) The availability and cost of chemical substitutes and of alternative
     technologies to reduce the emissions of ozone-modifying substances
     and related planned and ongoing research;
 (b) The limitations and any risks involved in using chemical or other
     substitutes and alternative technologies.

5. Socio-economic and commercial information on the substances referred to
in annex I
This includes information on:

 (a) Production and production capacity;
 (b) Use and use patterns;
 (c) Imports/exports;
 (d) The costs, risks and benefits of human activities which may
     indirectly modify the ozone layer and of the impacts of regulatory
     actions taken or being considered to control these activities.

6. Legal information
This includes information on:

 (a) National laws, administrative measures and legal research relevant to
     the protection of the ozone layer;
 (b) International agreements, including bilateral agreements, relevant to
     the protection of the ozone layer;
 (c) Methods and terms of licensing and availability of patents relevant
     to the protection of the ozone layer.