**4.1.2.1.1 Map Projection Name**

__Definition__: Name of the map projection.

__Format__: Free text.

__Example__:

Map Projection Name: Albers Conical Equal Area

Map Projection Name: Azimuthal Equidistant

Map Projection Name: Equidistant Conic

Map Projection Name: Equirectangular

Map Projection Name: General Vertical Near-sided Projection

Map Projection Name: Gnomonic

Map Projection Name: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

Map Projection Name: Lambert Conformal Conic

Map Projection Name: Mercator

Map Projection Name: Modified Stereographic for Alaska

Map Projection Name: Miller Cylindrical

Map Projection Name: Oblique Mercator

Map Projection Name: Orthographic

Map Projection Name: Polar Stereographic

Map Projection Name: Polyconic

Map Projection Name: Robinson

Map Projection Name: Sinusoidal

Map Projection Name: Space Oblique Mercator (Landsat)

Map Projection Name: Stereographic

Map Projection Name: Transverse Mercator

Map Projection Name: Van der Grinten

**4.1.2.1.2 Albers Conical Equal Area**

__Definition__: Contains parameters for the Albers
Conical Equal Area projection.

**4.1.2.1.3 Azimuthal Equidistant**

__Definition__: Contains parameters for the Azimuthal
Equidistant projection.

**4.1.2.1.4 Equidistant Conic**

__Definition__: Contains parameters for the Equidistant
Conic projection.

**4.1.2.1.5 Equirectangular**

__Definition__: Contains parameters for the Equirectangular projection.

**4.1.2.1.6 General Vertical Near-sided Perspective**

__Definition__: Contains parameters for the General Vertical Near-sided Perspective projection.

**4.1.2.1.7 Gnomonic**

__Definition__: Contains parameters for the Gnomonic
projection.

**4.1.2.1.8 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area**

__Definition__: Contains parameters for the Lambert
Azimuthal Equal Area projection.

**4.1.2.1.9 Lambert Conformal Conic**

__Definition__: Contains parameters for the Lambert
Conformal Conic projection.

**4.1.2.1.10 Mercator**

__Definition__: Contains parameters for the Mercator
projection.

**4.1.2.1.11 Modified Stereographic for Alaska**

__Definition__: Contains parameters for the Modified
Stereographic for Alaska projection.

**4.1.2.1.12 Miller Cylindrical**

__Definition__: Contains parameters for the Miller
Cylindrical projection.

**4.1.2.1.13 Oblique Mercator**

__Definition__: Contains parameters for the Oblique
Mercator projection.

**4.1.2.1.14 Orthographic**

__Definition__: Contains parameters for the Orthographic
projection.

**4.1.2.1.15 Polar Stereographic**

__Definition__: Contains parameters for the Polar
Stereographic projection.

**4.1.2.1.16 Polyconic**

__Definition__: Contains parameters for the Polyconic
projection.

**4.1.2.1.17 Robinson**

__Definition__: Contains parameters for the Robinson
projection.

**4.1.2.1.18 Sinusoidal**

__Definition__: Contains parameters for the Sinusoidal
projection.

**4.1.2.1.19 Space Oblique Mercator (Landsat)**

__Definition__: Contains parameters for the Space
Oblique Mercator projection.

**4.1.2.1.20 Stereographic**

__Definition__: Contains parameters for the Stereographic
projection.

**4.1.2.1.21 Transverse Mercator**

__Definition__: Contains parameters for the Transverse
Mercator projection.

**4.1.2.1.22 Van der Grinten**

__Definition__: Contains parameters for the Van
der Grinten projection.

**4.1.2.1.23 Map Projection Parameters**

__Definition__: A complete parameter set of the
projection that was used for the dataset. The information provided
shall include the names of the parameters and values used for
the dataset that describe the mathematical relationship between
the Earth and the plane or developable surface for the projection.

**4.1.2.1.23.1 Standard Parallel**

__Definition__: Line of constant latitude at which
the surface of the Earth and the plane or developable surface
intersect.

__Format__: Real; Range from -90.0 to 90.0 latitude.

**4.1.2.1.23.2 Longitude of Central Meridian:**

__Definition__: The line of longitude at the center
of a map projection generally used as the basis for constructing
the projection.

__Format__: Real; Range from -180.0 to 180.0 longitude.

**4.1.2.1.23.3 Latitude of Projection Origin**

__Definition__: Latitude chosen as the origin
of rectangular coordinates for a map projection.

__Format__: Real; Range from -90.0 to 90.0 latitude.

**4.1.2.1.23.4 False Easting**

__Definition__: The value added to all "x" values
in the rectangular coordinates for a map projection. This value
frequently is assigned to eliminate negative numbers and is
expressed in the unit of measure identified in Planar Coordinate
Units.

__Format__: Real.

**4.1.2.1.23.5 False Northing**

__Definition__: The value added to all "y" values
in the rectangular coordinates for a map projection. This value
frequently is assigned to eliminate negative numbers and is
expressed in the unit of measure identified in Planar Coordinate
Units.

__Format__: Real.

**4.1.2.1.23.6 Scale Factor at Equator**

__Definition__: A multiplier for reducing a distance
obtained from a map by computation or scaling to the actual
distance along the equator.

__Format__: Real; Factor > 0.0

**4.1.2.1.23.7 Height of Perspective Point Above Surface**

__Definition__: Height of viewpoint above the
Earth, expressed in meters.

__Format__: Real; Height > 0.0

**4.1.2.1.23.8 Longitude of Projection Center**

__Definition:__ Longitude of the point of projection
for azimuthal projections.

__Format__: Real; Range from -180.0 to 180.0 longitude.

**4.1.2.1.23.9 Latitude of Projection Center**

__Definition:__ Latitude of the point of projection
for azimuthal projections.

__Format__: Real; Range from -90.0 to 90.0 latitude.

**4.1.2.1.23.10 Scale Factor at Center Line**

__Definition__: A multiplier for reducing a distance
obtained from a map computation or scaling to the actual distance along the center line.

__Format__: Real; Factor > 0.0

**4.1.2.1.23.11 Oblique Line Azimuth**

__Definition__: Method used to describe the line
along which an oblique mercator map projection is centered using
the map projection origin and an azimuth.

**4.1.2.1.23.11.1 Azimuthal Angle**

__Definition__: Angle measured clockwise from
north, and expressed in degrees.

__Format__: Real; Range from 0.0 to 360.0 degrees.

**4.1.2.1.23.11.2 Azimuth Measure Point Longitude**
__Definition__: Longitude of the map projection
origin.

__Format__: Real; Range from -180.0 to 180.0 longitude.

**4.1.2.1.23.12 Oblique Line Point**

__Definition__: Method used to describe the line
along which an oblique mercator map projection is centered using
two points near the limits of the mapped region that define
the center line.

**4.1.2.1.23.12.1 Oblique Line Latitude**

__Definition__: Latitude of a point defining
the oblique line.

__Format__: Real; Range from -90.0 to 90.0 latitude.

**4.1.2.1.23.12.2 Oblique Line Longitude**

__Definition__: Longitude of a point defining
the oblique line.

__Format__: Real; Range from -180.0 to 180.0 longitude.

**4.1.2.1.23.13 Straight Vertical Longitude from Pole**

__Definition:__ Longitude to be oriented straight
up from the North or South Pole.

__Format__: Real; Range from -180.0 to 180.0 longitude.

**4.1.2.1.23.14 Scale Factor at Projection Origin**

__Definition__: Multiplier for reducing a distance
obtained from a map by computation or scaling to the actual
distance at the projection origin.

__Format__: Real; Factor > 0.0

**4.1.2.1.23.15 Landsat Number**

__Definition__: Number of the Landsat satellite.
(Note: This data element exists solely to provide a parameter
needed to define the space oblique mercator projection. It is
not used to identify data originating from a remote sensing
vehicle.)

__Format__: Integer; Range from 1 to 7.

**4.1.2.1.23.16 Path Number**

__Definition__: Number of the orbit of the Landsat
satellite. (Note: This data element exists solely to provide
a parameter needed to define the space oblique mercator projection. It is not used to identify data originating from a remote sensing vehicle.)

__Format__: Integer; Range from 1 to 251 (Landsat 1, 2, 3)
and 1 to 233 (Landsat 4, 5, 7).

**4.1.2.1.23.17 Scale Factor at Central Meridian**

__Definition__: A multiplier for reducing a distance
obtained from a map by computation or scaling to the actual
distance along the central meridian.

__Format__: Real; Factor > 0.0

**4.1.2.1.23.18 Other Projection's Definition**

__Definition__: A complete description of a projection,
not described elsewhere in the standard, that was used for the
dataset. The information provided shall include the name of
the projection, names of the parameters and values used for
the dataset, and the citation of the specification for the
algorithms that describe the mathematical relationship between
Earth and plane or developable surface for the projection.

__Format__: Free text.

**4.1.2.2.1 Grid Coordinate System Name**

__Definition__: Name of the grid coordinate system.

__Format__: Text; Select from list.

__Example__:

Grid Coordinate System Name: Universal Transverse Mercator

Grid Coordinate System Name: Universal Polar Stereographic

Grid Coordinate System Name: State Plane Coordinate System
1927

Grid Coordinate System Name: State Plane Coordinate System
1983

Grid Coordinate System Name: ARC Coordinate System

Grid Coordinate System Name: Other Grid System

**4.1.2.2.2 Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)**

__Definition__: A grid system based on the transverse
mercator projection, applied between latitudes 84 degrees North
and 80 degrees South on the Earth's surface.

**4.1.2.2.2.1 UTM Zone Number**

__Definition__: Identifier for the UTM zone.

__Format__: Integer; Range from 1 to 60 (Northern Hemisphere)
and -1 to -60 (Southern Hemisphere).

**4.1.2.2.3 Universal Polar Stereographic (UPS)**

__Definition__: A grid system based on the polar
stereographic projection, applied to the Earth's polar regions
north of 84 degrees North and south of 80 degrees South.

**4.1.2.2.3.1 UPS Zone Identifier**

__Definition__: Identifier for the UPS zone.

__Format__: Text; Select from list.

__Example__:

UPS Zone Identifier: A

UPS Zone Identifier: B

UPS Zone Identifier: Y

UPS Zone Identifier: Z

**4.1.2.2.4 State Plane Coordinate System**

__Definition__: A plane-rectangular coordinate system
established for each state in the United States by the National
Geodetic Survey.

**4.1.2.2.4.1 SPCS Zone Identifier**

__Definition__: Identifier for the SPCS zone.

__Format__: Text; Four-digit numeric codes for the State Plane
Coordinate Systems based on the North American Datum of 1927^{1} and codes for the State Plane Coordinate Systems based on the North American Datum of 1983^{2}.

**4.1.2.2.5 ARC Coordinate System**

__Definition__: The Equal Arc-second Coordinate
System, a plane-rectangular coordinate system^{3}.

**4.1.2.2.5.1 ARC System Zone Identifier**

__Definition__: Identifier for the ARC Coordinate
System zone.

__Format__: Integer; Range from 1 to 18.

**4.1.2.2.6 Other Grid System's Definition**

__Definition__: A complete description of a grid
system, not defined elsewhere in this standard, that was used
for the dataset. The information provided shall include the name
of the grid system, the names of the parameters and values used
for the dataset, and the citation of the specification for the
algorithms that describe the mathematical relationship between
the Earth and the coordinates of the grid system.

__Format__: Free text.

"A local planar coordinate system is any planar coordinate system
for which the relationship between the planar coordinates and geographic
(latitude and longitude) coordinates is not known. In these cases,
the standards ask the producer to describe the coordinate system
(the orientation of the axis, etc.) and any means that can be used
to link the local system to geographic coordinates."^{4}

**4.1.2.4.1 Planar Coordinate Encoding Method**

__Definition__: The means used to represent horizontal
positions.

__Format__: Text; Select from list.

__Example__:

Planar Coordinate Encoding Method: Coordinate Pair

Planar Coordinate Encoding Method: Distance and Bearing

Planar Coordinate Encoding Method: Row and Column

**4.1.2.4.2 Coordinate Representation**

__Definition__: The method of encoding the position
of a point by measuring its distance from perpendicular reference
axes (the "coordinate pair" and "row and column" methods).

**4.1.2.4.2.1 Abscissa Resolution**

__Definition__: The (nominal) minimum distance
between the "x" or column values of two adjacent points, expressed
in Planar Distance Units of measure.

__Format__: Real; Resolution > 0.0

**4.1.2.4.2.2 Ordinate Resolution**

__Definition__: The (nominal) minimum distance
between the "y" or row values of two adjacent points, expressed
in Planar Distance Units of measure.

__Format__: Real; Resolution > 0.0

**4.1.2.4.3 Distance and Bearing Representation**

__Definition__: A method of encoding the position
of a point by measuring its distance and direction (azimuthal
angle) from another point.

**4.1.2.4.3.1 Distance Resolution**

__Definition__: The minimum distance measurable
between two points, expressed in Planar Distance Units of measure.

__Format__: Real; Resolution > 0.0

**4.1.2.4.3.2 Bearing Resolution**

__Definition__: The minimum angle measurable between
two points, expressed in Bearing Units of measure.

__Format__: Real; Resolution > 0.0

**4.1.2.4.3.3 Bearing Units**

__Definition__: Units of measure used for angles.

__Format__: Text; Select from list.

__Example__:

Bearing Units: Decimal Degrees

Bearing Units: Decimal Minutes

Bearing Units: Decimal Seconds

Bearing Units: Degrees and Decimal Minutes

Bearing Units: Degrees, Minutes, and Decimal Seconds

Bearing Units: Radians

Bearing Units: Grads

**4.1.2.4.3.4 Bearing Reference Direction **

__Definition__: Direction from which the bearing
is measured.

__Format__: Text; Select from list.

__Example__:

Bearing Reference Direction: North

Bearing Reference Direction: South

**4.1.2.4.3.5 Bearing Reference Meridian**

__Definition__: Axis from which the bearing is
measured.

__Format__: Text; Select from list.

__Example__:

Bearing Reference Meridian: Assumed

Bearing Reference Meridian: Grid

Bearing Reference Meridian: Magnetic

Bearing Reference Meridian: Astronomic

Bearing Reference Meridian: Geodetic

**4.1.2.4.4 Planar Distance Units**

__Definition__: Units of measure used for distances.

__Format__: Free text.

__Example__:

Planar Distance Units: Meters

Planar Distance Units: International Feet

Planar Distance Units: Survey Feet