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Selected Documents on Confidentiality and Geospatial Data


Abowd, J. M. and Lane, J. I. (2007). The Economics of Data Confidentiality. ICP Bulletin, 4(2):1, 18-21.

Allshouse, W. B., Fitch, M. K., Hampton, K. H., Gesink, D. C., Doherty, I. A., Leone, P. A., Serre, M. L., and Miller, W. C. (2010). Geomasking Sensitive Health Data and Privacy Protection: an Evaluation Using an E911 Database. Geocarto International, 25(6), 443-452. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10106049.2010.496496 Accessed 2 March 2011.

AMEC Earth & Environmental of AMEC Americas Limited. (2010). Best Practices for Sharing Sensitive Environmental Geospatial Data, Version 1.0. Natural Resources Canada, GeoConnections. http://www.geoconnections.org/publications/Key_documents/Sensitive_Env_Geo_Data_Guide_EN_v1.pdf Accessed 2 March 2011.

Brownstein, J. S., Cassa, C. A., and Mandl, K. D. (2006). No Place to Hide -- Reverse Identification of Patients from Published Maps. New England Journal of Medicine, October 19, 2006; 355(16): 1741 - 1742.
http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/short/355/16/1741 Accessed 2 March 2011.

Brownstein, J. S., Cassa, C. A., Kohane, I. S. and Mandl, K. D. (2006). An unsupervised classification method for inferring original case locations from low-resolution disease maps. International Journal of Health Geographics, 5(56), doi:10.1186/1476-072X-5-56

http://www.ij-healthgeographics.com/content/5/1/56 Accessed 2 March 2011.

Cassa, C. A., Wieland, S. C., and Mandl, K. D. (2008). Re-Identification of Home Addresses from Spatial Locations Anonymized by Gaussian Skew. International Journal of Health Geographics, 7(45). http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-7-45 Accessed 2 March 2011.

Cassa, C. A., Grannis, S. J., Overhage, J. M., and Mandl K. D. (2006). A Context-sensitive Approach to Anonymizing Spatial Surveillance Data: Impact on Outbreak Detection.
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Assocociation, 2006;13:160-165.
http://www.jamia.org/cgi/content/abstract/13/2/160 Accessed 2 March 2011.

Croner, C.M. (2003). Public health GIS and the Internet. Annual Review of Public Health, 24:57-82. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12543872 Accessed 2 March 2011.

Curtis, A., Mills, J. W., Agustin, L., and Cockburn, M. (2011). Confidentiality risks in fine scale aggregations of health data. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 35 (1), 57-64. DOI: 10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2010.08.002

Curtis, A. J., Mills, J. W., and Leitner, M. (2006). Spatial confidentiality and GIS: re-engineering mortality locations from published maps about Hurricane Katrina. International Journal of Health Geographics, 5(44), doi:10.1186/1476-072X-5-44

http://www.ij-healthgeographics.com/content/5/1/44 Accessed 2 March 2011.

de Wolf, V.A. (2003). Issues in accessing and sharing confidential survey and social science data. Data Science Journal, 2(17):66-74.

http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/dsj/2/0/66/_pdf Accessed 2 March 2011.

Delcher, P. C., Edwards, K. T., Stover, J. A., Newman, L. M., Groseclose, S. L., and Rajnik, D. M.. (2008). Data Suppression Strategies Used During Surveillance Data Release by Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Programs. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 14(2), March/April 2008, pp. E1–E8. DOI: 10.1097/01.PHH.0000311902.95948.f5. ISSN: 1078-4659. http://www.jphmp.com/pt/re/jphmp/abstract.00124784-200803000-00021.htm Accessed 2 March 2011.

El Emam, K., Brown, A., Abdelmalik, P., Neisa, A., Walker, M., Bottomley, J., and Roffey, T. (2010). A Method for Managing Re-Identification Risk from Small Geographic Areas in Canada. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 10 (1), art. no. 18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6947-10-18 Accessed 2 March 2011.

El Emam, K., Dankar, F. K., Issa, R., Jonker, E., Amyot, D., Cogo, E., Corriveau, J. P., Walker, M., Chowdhury, S., Vaillancourt, R., Roffey, T., and Bottomley, J. (2009). A Globally Optimal k-Anonymity Method for the De-Identification of Health Data. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 16 (5), 670-682. http://dx.doi.org/10.1197/jamia.M3144 Accessed 2 March 2011.

El Emam, K., Jabbouri, S., Sams, S., Drouet, Y. and Power, M. (2006). Evaluating Common De-Identification Heuristics for Personal Health Information. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 2006 Oct–Dec; 8(4): e28.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1794009 Accessed 2 March 2011.

Federal Geographic Data Committee (1998). FGDC Policy on Access to Public Information and the Protection of Personal Information Privacy in Federal Geospatial Databases. Adopted by the Federal Geographic Data Committee in April 1998.

http://www.fgdc.gov/policyandplanning/privacypolicy.pdf Accessed 2 March 2011.

Golden, M. L., Downs, R. R., and Davis-Packard, K. (2005). Confidentiality Issues and Policies Related to the Utilization and Dissemination of Geospatial Data for Public Health Applications. A Report to: The Public Health Applications of Earth Science Program, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Science Mission Directorate, Applied Sciences Program. Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University, March 2005. http://www.ciesin.columbia.edu/pdf/SEDAC_ConfidentialityReport.pdf Accessed 2 March 2011.

Gutmann, M., Witkowski, K., Colyer, C., O’Rourke, J., and McNally, J. (2008). Providing Spatial Data for Secondary Analysis: Issues and Current Practices Relating to Confidentiality. Population Research and Policy Review, 27(6), 639-665, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11113-008-9095-4 Accessed 2 March 2011.

Homeland Security Working Group. (2005). Guidelines for Providing Appropriate Access to Geospatial Data in Response to Security Concerns. Federal Geographic Data Committee, U.S. Geological Survey, http://www.fgdc.gov/policyandplanning/Access%20Guidelines.pdf Accessed 2 March 2011.

Institute of Medicine (1994). Health Data in the Information Age. Committee on Regional Health Data Networks, Division of Health Care Services. Donaldson, M.S. and K.N. Lohr, eds. Washington DC: National Academy Press. http://www.nap.edu/books/0309049954/html/R1.html Accessed 2 March 2011.

Institute of Medicine (2001). Preserving Public Trust: Accreditation and Human Research Participant Protection Programs. Committee on Assessing the System for Protecting Human Research Participants, Board on Health Sciences Policy. Washington DC: National Academy Press. http://books.nap.edu/catalog/10085.html   Accessed 2 March 2011.

Institute of Medicine (2002). Responsible Research: A Systems Approach to Protecting Research Participants. Committee on Assessing the System for Protecting Human Research Participants, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine. D. Federman, K. Hanna, and L. Lyman Rodriquez, eds. Washington DC: National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10508.html   Accessed 2 March 2011.

Kamel Boulos, M. N., Curtis, A. J., and AbdelMalik, P. (2009). Musings on Privacy Issues in Health Research Involving Disaggregate Geographic Data about Individuals. International Journal of Health Geographics 8 (1), art. no. 46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-8-46 Accessed 2 March 2011.

Marshall, P.A.(2007). Ethical challenges in study design and informed consent for health research in resource-poor settings. Special Topics in Social, Economic and Behavioural (SEB) Research report series; No. 5. Geneva: World Health Organization on behalf of the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR).
http://www.who.int/tdr/publications/publications/seb_topic5.htm Accessed on 2 March 2011.

Nass, S. J., Levit, L. A., and Gostin, L. O., Eds. Committee on Health Research and the Privacy of Health Information: The HIPAA Privacy Rule; Institute of Medicine. (2009). Beyond the HIPAA Privacy Rule: Enhancing Privacy, Improving Health Through Research. National Academy Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12458 Accessed 19 February 2009. Report Brief: http://www.iom.edu/File.aspx?ID=61836 Accessed 2 March 2011.

National Research Council (2000). Improving Access to and Confidentiality of Research Data: Report of a Workshop. Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT). C. Mackie and N. Bradburn, Eds. Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington DC: National Academies Presshttp://www.nap.edu/books/0309071801/html/ Accessed 2 March 2011.

National Research Council (2007). Putting People on the Map: Protecting Confidentiality with Linked Social-Spatial Data. Panel on Confidentiality Issues Arising from the Integration of Remotely Sensed and Self-Identifying Data. M. P. Gutmann and P. C. Stern, eds. Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11865 Accessed 2 March 2011.

National Research Council (2003). Protecting Participants and Facilitating Social and Behavioral Sciences Research. Panel on Institutional Review Boards, Surveys, and Social Science Research. C. F. Citro, D.R. Ilgen, and C.B. Marrett, eds. Committee on National Statistics and Board on Behavioral Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences. Washington DC: The National Academies Press. http://books.nap.edu/catalog/10638.html   Accessed 2 March 2011.

National Research Council (2003). Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT), Panel on Confidential Data Access for Research Purposes. Papers and Presentations. Workshop on Data Access and Confidentiality, Access to Research Data: Assessing Risks and Opportunities, National Academy of Sciences, Washington DC, 16-17 October 2003. http://www7.nationalacademies.org/cnstat/Data_Access_Panel.html   Accessed 2 March 2011.

National Research Council and Social Science Research Council (1993). Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics. Panel on Confidentiality and Data Access. G.T. Duncan, T.B. Jabine, and V.A. de Wolf, eds. Committee on National Statistics, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington DC: National Academy Press. http://books.nap.edu/books/0309047439/html/index.html   Accessed 2 March 2011.

Olson, K. L., Grannis, S. J., MS and Mandl, K. D. (2006). Privacy Protection Versus Cluster Detection in Spatial Epidemiology. American Journal of Public Health, November 1, 2006; 96(11): 2002 - 2008.
http://www.ajph.org/cgi/content/abstract/96/11/2002 Accessed 2 March 2011.

Rindfuss, R.R. (2002). Conflicting demands: Confidentiality promises and data availability. IHDP Update: Newsletter of the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change, February 2002, pp. 1-4, 8.

Sherman, J. E. and Fetters. T. L. (2007). Confidentiality Concerns with Mapping Survey Data in Reproductive Health Research. Studies in Family Planning, 38(4), pp. 309-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4465.2007.00143.x Accessed 2 March 2011.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (US DHHS) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (2005). CDC-CSTE Intergovernmental Data Release Guidelines Working Group (DRGWG) Report: CDC-ATSDR-CSTE Data Release Guidelines for Re-release State Data. Draft report for soliciting input and feedback (drgwg report ver 6-2.doc). http://www.cdc.gov/od/foia/policies/drgwg.pdf Accessed 2 March 2011.

U.S. Office of Management and Budget (1994). Report on Statistical Disclosure Limitation Methodology . Subcommittee on Disclosure Limitation Methodology, Federal Committee on Statitistical Methodology. Statistical Policy Working Paper 22. 1994. http://www.fcsm.gov/working-papers/spwp22.html   Accessed 2 March 2011.

U.S. Office of Management and Budget (1999). Checklist on Disclosure Potential of Proposed Data Releases . Interagency Confidentiality and Data Access Group, An Interest Group of the Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology. http://www.fcsm.gov/committees/cdac/checklist_799.doc   Accessed 2 March 2011.

U.S. Office of Management and Budget (2001). Confidentiality and Data Access Issues Among Federal Agencies . Confidentiality and Data Access Committee and Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology. http://www.fcsm.gov/committees/cdac/brochur10.pdf   Accessed 2 March 2011.

VanWey, L. K., Rindfuss, R. R., Gutmann, M. P., Entwisle, B., and Balk, D. L. (2005).
Confidentiality and spatially explicit data: Concerns and challenges. Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences
102(43): 15337-15342. http://www.ciesin.columbia.edu/pdf/VanWey_etal.pdf  Accessed 9 December 2005. Also available from PNAS at http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/102/43/15337 Accessed 2 March 2011.

Young, C., Martin, D., and Skinner, C. (2007). Geographically intelligent disclosure control for flexible aggregation of census data. Southampton, UK, Southampton Statistical Sciences Research Institute, 50pp. (S3RI Methodology Working Papers, M07/12)
http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/46686/ Accessed 2 March 2011.

Zimmerman, D. L. and Pavlik, C. (2006). Quantifying the Effects of Mask Metadata Disclosure and Multiple Releases on the Confidentiality of Geographically Masked Health Data. July 25, 2006. Iowa City: University of Iowa Department of Biostatistics.
http://www.stat.uiowa.edu/techrep/tr369.pdf Accessed 2 March 2011.


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